This chapter surveys some of the principal aspects of Romance segmental phonology. It covers development and distribution of the different Romance tonic and unstressed vowel systems; nasalization; principal developments affecting consonantal systems, including phonemic and allophonic oppositions, consonantal strength ((de)gemination, lenition, and fortition). Specific topics dealt with include: inventories of stressed vowel phonemes; vowel quantity; nasal vowel phonemes and allophonic vowel nasalization; unstressed vowels; metaphony and vowel harmony; consonant inventories; retroflex consonants; palatal consonants and palatalization; rhotics and rhotacism; lenition and fortition; assimilation processes.
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