The main goal of this chapter is to provide a comparative overview of some of the principal aspects of sociolinguistic variation in Romance, covering phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical variation among different groups of the speech community according to sociolinguistic variables such as age, gender, class, education, medium and register; the role of the nature, organization, and cohesion of particular social groups and networks in driving socially-determined variation and linguistic innovations; high and low prestige variants; normative forces, and reactions to, standardization. Specific topics dealt with include: French; Italo-Romance; Spanish; variationist studies; sociolinguistic models and categories; regional sociolinguistic variation; sociolinguistic variables; historical sociolinguistic variation; recent standardizing and convergence trends; forms of address; standards and norms; national norms; regional norms.
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