This chapter surveys some of the principal issues involved in the processes of standardization which have affected Romance. It covers the emergence of standardized local orthographic traditions; the effects of standardization on phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical variation among different sections of the speech community; the role of academies; competing national and regional standards; dialect mixing; normative forces, and reactions to, standardization; written versus spoken language. Specific topics dealt with include: choice of a basis for the standard; identification with a geographical variant; literary standards; eclectic standards; polynomic standards; language names; the nature of codification; elaboration; support; acceptance; the challenge of change and diaspora.
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