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Animal Movement Across Scales$
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Lars-Anders Hansson and Susanne Åkesson

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780199677184

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199677184.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 28 October 2021

The physics of animal locomotion

The physics of animal locomotion

(p.232) Chapter 13 The physics of animal locomotion
Animal Movement Across Scales

Christoffer L. Johansson

Florian T. Muijres

Anders Hedenström

Oxford University Press

In this chapter the physics behind animal movement, the adaptations found in locomotion to generate forces, and the mechanisms reducing the cost of transport are discussed. The ability to minimize costs and maximize movement speed is part of the biomechanical physics of animal locomotion. For any type of active movement (e.g. walking, running, swimming, or flying), the animal is required to produce forces to overcome resistance and in many cases also gravity. For terrestrial locomotion, this is achieved by generating ground reaction forces, while in air and water by generating fluid dynamic forces. Due to scaling laws in physics, the speed that can be achieved and the cost of transport are correlated with the size of the animal. Moving across scales thus has consequences for our expectations regarding animal movement, including the occurrence of seasonal migrations, which may be limited by the speed and cost of locomotion.

Keywords:   locomotion, biomechanics, fluid dynamics, cost of transport, aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, walking, running, swimming, flying

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