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Animal Movement Across Scales$
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Lars-Anders Hansson and Susanne Åkesson

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780199677184

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199677184.001.0001

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Dispersal and phenotypic plasticity

Dispersal and phenotypic plasticity

(p.110) Chapter 7 Dispersal and phenotypic plasticity
Animal Movement Across Scales

Johan Hollander

Machteld Verzijden

Erik Svensson

Christer Brönmark

Oxford University Press

Virtually all species disperse to some extent. Yet, the magnitude of the dispersal rate and the scale of the environment often predispose organisms’ developmental strategies. That is whether species will evolve phenotypic plasticity, or selection would favour constitutive local adaption. Dispersal is a common feature among, e.g., emigrating birds with individuals visiting the same locality across years, while a more stochastic dispersal pattern is prevalent among many marine organisms with a planktonic dispersal phase and also among wind-pollinated plants. These different dispersal strategies infer numerous challenges for organisms in order to achieve a high adaptive value across environments as the fitness optimum change temporally or spatially. In essence, this chapter will discuss how various dispersal strategies constrain and or enable phenotypic evolution, and how developmental flexibility can facilitate migration by buffering against negative selection and subsequently drive population divergence.

Keywords:   phenotypic plasticity, behaviour, natural selection, scales, local adaptation, speciation, invasive species, gene flow, costs

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