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Identifying the Enemy – Civilian Participation in Armed Conflict - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Identifying the Enemy: Civilian Participation in Armed Conflict

Emily Crawford


This book examines and analyses the increasingly complex question of how to identify civilians who participate in hostilities. Civilians are, under the law of armed conflict (also known as international humanitarian law or IHL), immune from targeting for as long as they refrain from taking direct part in hostilities. Once civilians take direct part, they can be targeted. Significant changes have occurred in the conduct of armed conflict over the past twenty-five years which have increasingly placed civilians in traditionally military roles, for instance, with the employment of civilians in the ... More

Keywords: law of armed conflict, international humanitarian law, civilians, combatants, direct participation, hostilities

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2015 Print ISBN-13: 9780199678495
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2015 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199678495.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Emily Crawford, author
Lecturer and Co-Director, Sydney Centre for International Law, University of Sydney