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TanzaniaA Political Economy$
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Andrew Coulson

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199679966

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199679966.001.0001

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The Arusha Declaration

The Arusha Declaration

(p.214) 19 The Arusha Declaration

Andrew Coulson

Oxford University Press

The Arusha Declaration of February 1967 committed Tanzania to ‘socialism and self-reliance’. Socialism meant a belief in democracy and equality, enshrined in five ‘leadership conditions’ requiring that leaders do not own shares or directorships in private companies, or houses for rent, or receive two or more salaries. It also prescribed an active role for the state—nationalization of the banks, the most important manufacturing plants, and the sisal plantations. A Presidential paper, Education for Self-Reliance, was an attempt to make education relevant to the lives of the masses. A third paper, Socialism and Rural Development, introduced the concept of ujamaa villages. The timing of these papers, just over five years after Independence, represented the recognition that it was time for Tanzania to make its own political statement. Their popularity reflected the reality that conditions had not greatly improved for most Tanzanians.

Keywords:   socialism, self-reliance, inequality, leadership conditions, nationalization

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