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TanzaniaA Political Economy$
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Andrew Coulson

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199679966

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199679966.001.0001

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Production and Income Distribution

Production and Income Distribution

(p.227) 20 Production and Income Distribution

Andrew Coulson

Oxford University Press

The 1970s saw a sharp deterioration in Tanzania’s trade balance, met by reductions in reserves and support from the IMF and World Bank. Inflation averaged 2.1% per annum between 1961 and 1971, but 22.5% between 1971 and 1977. Meanwhile government income was buoyant, as a percentage of the Gross Domestic Product. This deterioration was greatly exacerbated by the rise in world oil prices in 1973—there was little compensating rise in the prices of Tanzania’s agricultural exports. The incomes of both workers on the minimum wage and farmers fell substantially, and malnutrition and poverty became very real for many Tanzanians in both urban and rural areas. The price of cloves rose in this period, so Zanzibar was not so badly hit.

Keywords:   trade balance, Gross Domestic Product, inflation, poverty, malnutrition

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