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The Age of the Efendiyya – Passages to Modernity in National-Colonial Egypt - Oxford Scholarship Online
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The Age of the Efendiyya: Passages to Modernity in National-Colonial Egypt

Lucie Ryzova


In colonial-era Egypt, a new social category of “modern men” emerged, the efendiyya (sg. efendi). Working as bureaucrats, teachers, journalists, free professionals and public intellectuals, the efendis represented new middle class elites. They were the experts who drafted and carried out the state’s modernisation policies, and the makers as well as majority consumers of modern forms of politics and national culture. As simultaneously “authentic” and “modern,” they assumed key political role in the anti-colonial movement and in the building of a modern state both before and after the revolution ... More

Keywords: modern Egypt, egyptian modernity, middle class, modern Egyptian men, efendi, efendiyya, traditional, modern, local, indigenous modernity, vernacular modernity, social mobility, colonial modernity, egyptian nationalism

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2014 Print ISBN-13: 9780199681778
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2014 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199681778.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Lucie Ryzova, author
Leverhulme Early Career Fellow, Faculty of History, University of Oxford

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