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Structure and Evolution of Invertebrate Nervous Systems$
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Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa, Steffen Harzsch, and Günter Purschke

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780199682201

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199682201.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 28 September 2021

Kamptozoa (Entoprocta)

Kamptozoa (Entoprocta)

(p.166) 17 Kamptozoa (Entoprocta)
Structure and Evolution of Invertebrate Nervous Systems

Andreas Wanninger

Oxford University Press

Kamptozoa is a group of 150 species of acoelomate, solitary or colonial, predominantly marine organisms that live epizooically on various substrates. Body size ranges from a few hundred micrometres to various millimetres, divided into a calyx and a stalk. Generally, the adult central nervous system consists of a dumbbell-shaped ganglion that is considered to be the fused once paired (‘cerebral’) ganglion. It is situated in the loop of the digestive tract and consists of a ventral neuropil mass with associated lateral somata. From the cerebral ganglion, all major neurites emanate; these do not seem to form distinct nerve cords. Numerous minute neurites penetrate the calyx and innervate ciliated sensory organs that are distributed all over the kamptozoan body, including the foot. There are two types of larvae: the planktotrophic swimming-type larva and the lecithotrophic creeping-type larva. Their neuroanatomies differ significantly. The nervous system of the creeping-type larva exhibits an astonishing degree of complexity. In particular, the apical organ consists of considerably more cells than that of most other spiralians. From the neuropil underlying the apical organ, a paired neurite bundle emerges which gives rise to one pair of ventral neurite bundles and one pair of more dorso-laterally positioned visceral neural bundles. The ventral neurite bundles are interconnected by commissures and have several, serially arranged sets of associated somata. Because of this tetraneuralin nervous system and numerous other characteristics, including the complex apical organ, a sistergroup relationship of Kamptozoa and Mollusca (Tetraneuralia) has been proposed.

Keywords:   Tetraneuralia, planktotropic larva, lecithotrophic larava, apical organ, tetraneuralin nervous system, Mollusca

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