The final part of the book, before the conclusion, consists of two chapters that look at two strategic issues relevant to all agricultural input subsidy programmes: targeting and graduation.
Targeting is an issue that has received attention in the theoretical and analytical literature on agricultural subsidies, as evidenced in Chapters 2 and 3. Targeting systems and outcomes of the Malawi FISP were considered briefly in Chapter 5. Chapter 10 examines these issues in more detail and considers challenges and options for improving targeting systems and outcomes in the Malawi FISP.
Like targeting, graduation has received considerable attention in the design, implementation, and analysis of social protection programmes. It has, however, received very little attention in agricultural input subsidy programmes where it has been considered largely in terms of the need for and difficulties with ‘exits’. The processes by which the need for subsidies becomes redundant and the criteria and mechanisms for programme exits have received much less attention. Chapter 11 takes the concept of graduation as used in social protection and develops it for application in the specific context of the Malawi FISP. (p.220)