This chapter continues the analysis of the doing/allowing distinction by exploring what makes a fact substantial. A fact will count as substantial if it has some feature that makes it more than a mere background condition. Three features that can make a fact substantial are discussed: being a positive fact about a relevant framework; being scalar positive relative to some natural scale; being contrary to the normal presuppositions (the relatively stable set of shared background assumptions made in discussion/reasoning). The discussion of the positive/negative distinction draws on the work of Jonathan Bennett. The author also shows that an account of the action/inaction distinction follows from this analysis.
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