Chapter 4 begins with Arnobius’ challenge to produce credible models of holiness that can be compared to Christ. It argues that the treatise of Iamblichus On the Pythagorean Life may have been written with some knowledge of the gospels; it goes on to canvass other precepts for godly living in the writings of Iamblichus, and observes that, for a Platonist, he is unusually hospitable to astrology. Turning to the most prominent astrologer of this period, Firmicus Maternus, it argues that even when he composed his Mathesis he may have considered himself a Christian. The final example of pagan holiness is Apollonius of Tyana, whose feats were pronounced superior to those of Christ by Sossianus Hierocles; in summarizing the tract Against Hierocles which now contains what remains of his diatribe, the arguments for and against the attribution of this text to Eusebius are recapitulated. The chapter ends with a synopsis of the arguments used by Arnobius to prove the superiority of Christ.
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