This chapter aims at providing a general overview of the hydrological context underlying the human settlement of the Nile Delta – and of the Mendesian Nome – from the Predynastic to the Arab periods. Drawing from geo-archeological and historical evidence, it first introduces the main features of the Nile river and discusses the ways in which they shaped ancient Egyptian attitudes toward the environment and fluvial risk, before turning to the hydrological history of the Nile Delta in antiquity.
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