The chapter focuses on the Buddhist artistic expression of the First Jebtsundamba Khutugtu (1635–1723), one of the most celebrated persons in the history of Mongolian Buddhism, who is believed to have single-handedly brought the tradition of Vajray›na Buddhism to late medieval Mongolia. Buddhist rituals, texts, temple construction, Buddhist art, and even designs for monastic robes are all attributed to his genius. He also introduced the artistic forms of Buddhist deities to Mongolia, such as the Five Tath›gatas, Maitreya, Twenty-One T›r›s, Vajradhara, Vajrasattva, and others. His careful selection of these deities, their particular forms, and the way in which they are represented demonstrate his unique artistic conventions. Zanabazar is also credited with building his main Buddhist settlement Urga (known later as Ikh Khüree, and today Ulaanbaatar), a mobile camp that was to reach out to the nomadic communities in various areas of Mongolia and spread Buddhism among them.
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