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The Evolution of Parental Care$
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Nick J. Royle, Per T. Smiseth, and Mathias Kölliker

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199692576

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692576.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 17 October 2021

What is parental care?

What is parental care?

(p.1) Chapter 1 What is parental care?
The Evolution of Parental Care

Per T. Smiseth

Mathias Kölliker

Nick J. Royle

Oxford University Press

This chapter begins by providing a brief overview of the tremendous diversity among species and higher taxa in the basic forms of care that parents provide to their offspring. It discusses five key terms that are used in the study of the evolution of parental care: parental care, parental expenditure, parental investment, parental effort, and parental effects. It then identifies sources of confusion over the use of these terms and suggests how the terms could be used more consistently in the future to improve translation between theory and empirical work in this field. Next, it considers the difficult issue of how to assign fitness, and fitness benefits and costs of care, to parents and offspring. Finally, the chapter provides a brief discussion of the environmental conditions that are thought to favour the origin and subsequent modifications of parental care.

Keywords:   parental fitness, parental expenditure, parental investment, parental effects, environmental conditions

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