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How Fighting EndsA History of Surrender$
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Holger Afflerbach and Hew Strachan

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199693627

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199693627.001.0001

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Surrender and Capitulation in the Middle East in the Age of the Crusades

Surrender and Capitulation in the Middle East in the Age of the Crusades

(p.73) 5 Surrender and Capitulation in the Middle East in the Age of the Crusades
How Fighting Ends

John France

Oxford University Press

The great age of crusading in the Middle East, from 1095 to 1291, witnessed a collision between peoples inspired by rival religions, each of which had its own conception of Holy War. Crusading was the sole reason the Latins had arrived in the East. For the Muslims, Jihad was a sacred duty which their alien elite used to bond the diverse peoples of the area to their rule. Contemporaries correctly noted that there was a special asperity in such warfare. In the great contest in the Middle East from 1095 to 1291 terrible things happened, but they happened in all wars, and even in the crusades surrender and capitulation were possible, albeit beset with difficulties. This was because neither side had the means to conduct unremitting warfare. Moreover members of the ruling classes on both sides wanted to be spared in the event of defeat or capture.

Keywords:   Crusade, Jihad, Latins, Turks, Koran, hudna, Mamluks, Jerusalem, acre

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