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The Frontier ClubPopular Westerns and Cultural Power, 1880-1924$
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Christine Bold

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199731794

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199731794.001.0001

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Immigrants and Indians

Immigrants and Indians

(p.169) 5 Immigrants and Indians
The Frontier Club

Christine Bold

Oxford University Press

Chapter Five explores the federal regulation of U.S. citizenship which culminated in the National Origins Act and the Indian Citizenship Act, both passed in 1924. Frontier clubmen contributed to the development of these congressional bills through their political activity, production of cultural and recreational spaces, and hunting tales-turned-westerns. Wister and Grant promoted immigration restriction with a cluster of mutually supportive discourses: advocacy work (especially with the Immigration Restriction League), conservation measures (including the New York Zoölogical Society), non-fiction (heavily informed by Social Darwinism and eugenics), and western fiction (Wister’s best-sellers and Grant’s little-known “Hank” stories). Grinnell was more closely engaged with Indigenous peoples. While he campaigned to protect the welfare of several Native nations and tribes, he also worked towards their containment and assimilation—on the imaginative level through his “Jack” book series for children and on the policy level through his lobbying for the creation of Glacier National Park.

Keywords:   citizenship, National Origins Act, Indian Citizenship Act, Glacier National Park, Wister, Grant, Grinnell, hunting tales, conservation, western fiction

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