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The Frontier ClubPopular Westerns and Cultural Power, 1880-1924$
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Christine Bold

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199731794

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199731794.001.0001

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Outside the Frontier Club

Outside the Frontier Club

(p.207) 6 Outside the Frontier Club
The Frontier Club

Christine Bold

Oxford University Press

Chapter Six addresses the popularization of the West at the turn of the twentieth century by more marginalized voices. Examples range across Indigenous performers and writers—including Princess Chinquilla, Simon Pokagon, S. Alice Callahan, and Zitkala-Ša; African American writers—including Nat Love and the soldiers, historians, journalists, novelists, and publishers discussed in chapter four; a long list of white women writers—including B. M. Bower, Mary Austin, Emma Ghent Curtis, Mollie E. Moore Davis, and Mary Roberts Rinehart; and the non-elite white man James Willard Schultz. Together, these examples challenge frontier club dominance not only with competing stories, characters, and styles but with different modes of production and cultural networks. The chapter also reconfigures 1902—an iconic year in the received history of westerns—by considering works beyond The Virginian published that year. It discusses most extensively Frances McElrath’s The Rustler, Pauline Hopkins’s Winona, and Alexander Posey’s Fus Fixico letters.

Keywords:   Indigenous voices, African American writers, women’s westerns, Princess Chinquilla, Simon Pokagon, S. Alice Callahan, Zitkala-Ša, James Willard Schultz, Alexander Posey, Pauline Hopkins, Frances McElrath

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