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Stereotype Threat – Theory, Process, and Application - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Michael Inzlicht and Toni Schmader


Stereotype threat is defined as a situational predicament in which individuals are at risk of confirming negative stereotypes about their group. It is the resulting sense that one might be judged in terms of negative stereotypes about one’s group instead of on personal merit. Research over the past 15 years has shown that stereotype threat contributes to low performance among African Americans, Latinos, and the poor, but also among women in math and science, the elderly in memory, and even whites in athletics. This book examines this important topic not only at the level of basic ... More

Keywords: stereotype threat, stigma, academic performance, black–white test score gap, male–female science gap, education policy

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2011 Print ISBN-13: 9780199732449
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2012 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Michael Inzlicht, author

Toni Schmader, author

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1 Introduction

Michael Inzlicht and Toni Schmader

Part one Basic Processes

4 Embodied Stereotype Threat

Wendy Berry Mendes And Jeremy Jamieson

Part two Theoretical Extensions

5 Types of Threats

Jenessa R. Shapiro

7 Stereotype Threat Spillover

Michael Inzlicht, Alexa M. Tullett, and Jennifer N. Gutsell

9 Stereotype Boost

Margaret J. Shih, Todd L. Pittinsky, and Geoffrey C. Ho

Part three Manifestations of Stereotype Threat

10 Threatening Gender and RaceDifferent Manifestations of Stereotype Threat

Christine Logel, Jennifer Peach, and Steven J. Spencer

11 Stereotype Threat in Organizations

Laura J. Kray and Aiwa Shirako

12 Social Class and Test Performance

Jean-Claude Croizet and Mathias Millet

13 Aging and Stereotype Threat

Alison L. Chasteen, Sonia K. Kang, and Jessica D. Remedios

14 The Impact of Stereotype Threat on Performance in Sports

Jeff Stone, Aina Chalabaev, and C. Keith Harrison

15 Stereotype Threat in Interracial Interactions

Jennifer A. Richeson and J. Nicole Shelton

Part four Stereotype Threat and the Real World

17 Stereotype Threat in the Real World

Joshua Aronson and Thomas Dee

18 An Identity Threat Perspective on Intervention

Geoffrey L. Cohen, Valerie Purdie-Vaughns, and Julio Garcia

End Matter