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Religion in ChinaSurvival and Revival under Communist Rule$
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Fenggang Yang

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199735655

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199735655.001.0001

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The Red, Black, and Gray Markets of Religion

The Red, Black, and Gray Markets of Religion

(p.85) 5 The Red, Black, and Gray Markets of Religion
Religion in China

Fenggang Yang

Oxford University Press

Chapter Five articulates the “triple-market model” of religion in China: there is a red market of religion that comprises legal religious organizations, believers, and activities, a black market of religion that is illegal, and a gray market of religion and spiritualities with ambiguous legal status. The gray market of religion includes illegal practices of legally sanctioned religious individuals and organizations; religious practices that are carried out in the name of culture, science, politics, etc. Three propositions suggest that under heavy regulation, black and gray markets are inevitable, and “the more restrictive and suppressive the regulation, the larger the gray market of religion necessarily becomes.” Empirical evidence is provided to support these propositions.

Keywords:   evil cults, Qigong, Falun Gong, mixin (superstition), Mao personality cult, folk religion, popular religion, Christian house church, Christian three-self patriotic association

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