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Associative Learning and Conditioning TheoryHuman and Non-Human Applications$
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Todd R. Schachtman and Steve S. Reilly

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199735969

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199735969.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 01 December 2021

Learning and Anxiety

Learning and Anxiety

(p.104) Chapter 5 Learning and Anxiety
Associative Learning and Conditioning Theory

Peter F. Lovibond

Oxford University Press

Traditionally, it has been assumed that associative learning is carried out by a low-level, reflexive, unconscious system, and accordingly associative explanations of clinical disorders have focused on irrational aspects of those disorders. However, research on human associative learning suggests that it depends critically on high-level, propositional, conscious processes. This perspective opens the door for an associative account of cognitive features of disorders, such as beliefs (rational and irrational). This chapter explores such an account, with a focus on anxiety. It argues that learned anxiety involves the development of threat beliefs regarding associations between antecedent stimuli and harmful outcomes. Performance is an automatic expectancy-based process. Threat expectancy and anxiety are also modulated by instrumental actions such as avoidance and safety behaviors. Threat beliefs may be established by direct experience, observation, language, and inference. Effective treatment can best be achieved by a coordinated combination of these same pathways.

Keywords:   anxiety, expectancy, propositional learning, contingency awareness, threat beliefs

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