Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Electronic and Computer Music$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Peter Manning

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199746392

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199746392.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 18 April 2021

From Analog to Digital: The Evolution of MIDI Hardware

From Analog to Digital: The Evolution of MIDI Hardware

(p.279) 15 From Analog to Digital: The Evolution of MIDI Hardware
Electronic and Computer Music

Peter Manning

Oxford University Press

In 1981 the Japanese electronics manufacturer Casio launched a miniature all-digital synthesizer known as the VL-1, costing less than $100. This consists of a tiny keyboard of just over two octaves, a bank of five voices controlled by a set of pushbuttons, a one-hundred-note sequencer, and a rhythm unit offering a choice of ten different patterns. This commercial device provided a major stimulus to two manufacturing sectors with broadly similar interests. The first of these concentrated on the design of basic electronic keyboards, products that used an electronic means of sound production, but specifically engineered to function as simple instruments with a fixed repertory of voices. The second focused on the development of more accessible and versatile resources, allowing composers and performers to engage proactively with the underlying functional characteristics, embracing facilities for audio synthesis and also the shaping and processing of sounds, including in addition those sampled from acoustic sources. The birth of the MIDI communications protocol in 1983 revolutionized the development of these products, leading to a prominence that materially shaped and influenced the creative development of the medium for more than a decade.

Keywords:   Chapter keywords: electronic keyboards, hardware, MIDI, sequencer, synthesizer

Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .