Many of the decisions in which lotteries have intuitive appeal concern allocative justice. This typically involves an agent distributing some good among parties who have claims to that good. This chapter renders precise the circumstances under which lotteries intuitively make sense when allocative justice is involved. It does so by formulating the just lottery rule. The challenge, then, is to explain why the just lottery rule should be true. This chapter considers and rejects three arguments for this rule—arguments grounded in consent, opportunity, and expectations.
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