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The INS on the LineMaking Immigration Law on the US-Mexico Border, 1917-1954$
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S. Deborah Kang

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780199757435

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199757435.001.0001

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(p.168) Conclusion
The INS on the Line

S. Deborah Kang

Oxford University Press

The conclusion provides an overview of developments in contemporary American immigration policy from 1954 to the present. Faced with the same dilemmas—how to open the borders to the free flow of trade, travelers, and commerce while closing it to the entry of undocumented immigrants and security threats—immigration policymakers have relied on old solutions. Border Patrol raids, legalization programs, guest worker agreements, and border crossing cards have been and continue to be central features of American immigration policy today. Yet by adopting the once ad hoc practices created by local immigration inspectors and Border Patrol officers, national policymakers also inherited their costs and consequences, the most serious of which included the arbitrariness, corruption, and even violence surrounding Border Patrol operations.

Keywords:   Customs and Border Protection, border security, enforcement first, border wall, smart borders, NAFTA, Operation Hold-the-Line, Operation Gatekeeper, Proposition 187, Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986

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