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Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition – Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Personhood, Ethics, and Animal Cognition: Situating Animals in Hare’s Two Level Utilitarianism

Gary E. Varner


R.M. Hare was one of the most important ethical theorists in the second half of the 20th century, and one of his graduate students, Peter Singer, became famous for his writings on animals and personhood. Singer now says that he endorses Hare’s “two-level utilitarianism,” and he has invoked the theory’s distinction between “critical thinking” and thinking in terms of “intuitive level rules” in response to certain objections to his conclusions on several issues. For his part, however, Hare never published a systematic treatment of how his theory applies to issues in animal ethics, and he avoided ... More

Keywords: R.M. Hare, utilitarianism, personhood, animals, moral thinking

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2012 Print ISBN-13: 9780199758784
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199758784.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Gary E. Varner, author
Texas A&M University