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The Cognitive Neuroscience of MemoryAn Introduction$
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Howard Eichenbaum

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199778614

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199778614.001.0001

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Multiple Memory Systems in the Brain

Multiple Memory Systems in the Brain

(p.219) 8 Multiple Memory Systems in the Brain
The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory

Howard Eichenbaum

Oxford University Press

This chapter presents substantial direct evidence for the existence and initial localization of multiple memory systems in the brain. Multiple dissociation studies show that in rats the hippocampal region mediates memory for adoption of the ‘place’ strategy in a T-maze and expression of episodic memories; in humans this region mediates memory for facts and events. The striatum plays a critical role in the learning of habitual behavioural responses, as reflected in rats by the ‘response’ strategy in a T-maze and stimulus-approach learning in the radial maze, and in humans by probabilistic learning of cue-response associations. These studies have also provided compelling evidence that the amygdala is critical to emotional learning, as reflected in the acquisition of cue preferences in rats and conditioned emotional responses in humans. Across all these experiments, a salient theme is that even for identical learning materials, different forms of memory are mediated largely independently and in parallel.

Keywords:   memory processing, multiple memory systems, rats, hippocampus, amygdala, emotional learning

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