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The Oxford Compendium of Visual Illusions$
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Arthur G. Shapiro and Dejan Todorovic

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780199794607

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2017

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794607.001.0001

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The Bogart Effect

The Bogart Effect

Chapter:
(p.624) Chapter 89 The Bogart Effect
Source:
The Oxford Compendium of Visual Illusions
Author(s):

Sharon Gilad-Gutnick

Rohan Varma

Pawan Sinha

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794607.003.0089

While a geometry-based eye-gaze estimation strategy has been the basis of many theories regarding the direction of one’s gaze, such a strategy relies on relatively detailed curvature information and therefore functions suboptimally under low-resolution viewing conditions. Partly in response to this concern, the past decade has seen the rise of luminance-based theories of eye-gaze estimation. The idea of luminance-based estimation of gaze direction arose from the observation that contrast negation affects eye-gaze perception, and an early demonstration and possible explanation for this phenomenon was offered by Sinha and named the “Bogart effect.” The Bogart Effect is an illusion of perceived gaze reversal in contrast negated images. It provides clues regarding the heuristics the visual system uses to robustly estimate gaze in real-world settings. This chapter discusses this illusion and related concepts.

Keywords:   Bogart effect, eye-gaze estimation, luminance-based theory, gaze direction, gaze reversal, negated images

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