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A Living Theology of Krishna BhaktiEssential Teachings of A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada$

Tamal Krishna Goswami and Graham M. Schweig

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199796632

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199796632.001.0001

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(p.259) Index

(p.259) Index

Source:
A Living Theology of Krishna Bhakti
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
abhidheya and Bhāgavata Purāṇa, 212
as execution, 84n100
as hermeneutic, 84, 85, 208, 210, 213
and playfulness, 215
and Rāsa Līlā, 216
Abhinavagupta, 164n19
ācārya(s), 43n12, 165
absolute claims of, 70
and birth, 109
commentary by, 115, 117
and Krishna, 172
mistakes by, 174
Prabhupāda as, 85, 89
Prabhupāda on, 173–174
Vaishnava Vedāntic, 100
acintya-bhedābheda, 125, 134, 205
acosmism, 99–100
adhikāra (eligibility), 130, 162n13
Advaita (nondualism) of Śaṅkara, 23n8, 28n22, 99, 100
advaita-vāda, 161
Advaita Vedānta and Hinduism, 151
and Indologists, 82n98
and mahāvākyas, 128
and monistic TM, 81
and rasa, 86
and Śaṅkara, 121
and Sinha, 73n78
and Vaishnava position, 67, 68
aesthetics, 163, 164, 170
Āgamas, 121, 193
ākāṅkṣā (mutual expectancy), 142, 153
Alper, Harvey P., 145, 146
Āḷvārs, 164
anartha-nivṛtti (diminishing of unwanted habits), 198
Anglicists, 102
anthropomorphism, 32, 155, 156
anticult movement, 51, 54, 63, 71n70, 83
See also cults, controversy over anumāna (inference, logic, reason), 69n65, 88n3
aravinda (lotus), 22
Arjuna, 41, 137, 211, 224, 228
and bhagavān, 140
and Krishna’s love, 227
and Puruṣottama, 139
artha (economic gain), 166
ārya/anārya, 130
āsakti (attachment to Krishna), 198
āśrama, 171n47
ātman, 134n47
Aurobindo, 168
avatāra Chaitanya as, 203, 204
and Christian incarnation, 93n21 (p.260)
avatāra (Cont.) Krishna as, 143
Nṛsiṁhadeva as, 194
translation as “incarnation,” 134n47, 136n53
āveśa, 135
āveśa-rūpa, 135n52
Baba Premanand Bharati, 56n36, 152n103
Back to Godhead (magazine), 35, 52, 112
Baird, Robert D., 78, 79
and bhakti, 166n24
and interpretation, 76
on Prabhupāda’s Gītā, 75
on Prabhupāda’s theology, 66–71, 122
Baladeva Vidyābhūṣana, 114, 117, 163n16
on Bhagavad Gītā, 169
Gītā-bhūṣaṇa-bhāṣya, 114n77
Govinda-bhāṣya commentary on Vedāntasūtra, 127
Prameya-ratnāvalī, 127
Balarāma, 195
Barbour, Ian, 131n34, 154, 155
Basham, A. L., 21, 36, 56
Beck, Guy, 180
Sonic Theology, 207n7
Bengal, 102–108, 121, 163
Bengali Vaishnavism, 23n7
Bernhard, Franz, 42n7
Berwick, John, 95n25
bhadralok, 103, 104, 105, 106, 108
bhagavad-dharma (divine duty), 80
Bhagavad Gītā authority of, 163n16
and Baird, 66, 67
Baladeva Vidyābhūṣana’s commentary on, 169
bhagavān in, 140
and bhakti, 2, 164
and Caitanya Caritāmṛta, 230
and Chaitanyaites, 117–118
and Herman, 75–76
Krishna in, 59
and Krishna’s love call, 224, 226
Krishna’s love in, 226–229
Krishna’s yearning for souls in, 214
and Prabhupāda, 117, 118, 148, 209–210
Prabhupāda’s commentary on, 35–36n32, 115, 210
Prabhupāda’s hermeneutic for, 84n100
Prabhupāda’s translation of, 35, 75–76, 140–141, 148
and prema, 209–211, 213
and prema-bhakti-rasa, 224
proselytical and pedagogical value of, 118
as purely bhakti text, 169
Puruṣottama in, 139, 140
Radhakrishnan edition of, 140–141
Radhakrishnan on, 151
and senses, 171
and service, 168, 169
and Sharpe, 71n68
as single, unified text, 26
Staal vs. Prabhupāda on, 43–44
Urquhart on, 101
as Vaishnava text, 210
and Vedic scripture, 43–44n12
Viśvanātha’s commentary on, 169
Zaehner edition of, 140–141
bhagavān, 170
and Bhāgavata Purāṇa, 142–145
and Brahman, 132
diverse referents of, 141–142, 143
English equivalent to, 151
infinite energies (śaktis) of, 132–138
and Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 4, 31, 140–145
Krishna as, 142–145, 223, 224
in Prabhupāda’s Gītā editions, 140
and puruṣa, 142n76
as term, 140
Bhagavān and bhakti, 220
and divinity, 223 (p.261)
and Paramātmā, 132
ultimacy of, 132
ultimate reality as, 131–132
bhāgavata (devotee), 140, 157, 158
Bhāgavata Purāṇa and Brahmasūtra, 163
and bhagavān, 142–145
and bhakti, 164
and Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī, 110
and Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura, 105, 106
and Brahman, Paramātmā, and Bhagavān, 223
and Caitanya Caritāmṛta, 230
and Chaitanya, 33
cosmographic descriptions of, 80
as essence of Vedas, Purāṇas, and Itihāsas, 88
governing sūtra of, 26
Govinda in, 214, 216
hearing of, 183–187
hermeneutic for, 84n100
Hopkins on tradition of, 58
and Kenney and Polling, 62
and Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 149
Krishna in, 59, 124
Krishna’s affection for cows in, 214
Krishna’s call to souls in, 218
and Krishna’s flute music, 225
Krishna’s love call in, 226
and Prabhupāda, 26, 35, 35–36n32, 113, 119, 152, 153, 209–210, 211
and sacrifice and birth qualifications, 130
and senses, 63n52, 75
and temple worship, 192
Urquhart on, 101
as Vyāsa’s commentary on Vedānta Sūtra, 88
bhaj, 140, 167, 170
bhajana-kriyā, 198
bhakta (devotee) and acintya-bhedābheda, 205
bliss of, 166
Chaitanya as paradigmatic, 204
children born to, 75n84
and Krishna, 157
Krishna as, 215
and Krishna’s flute song, 225
and love, 201
and love of Krishna, 215
loving exchange with Krishna, 136
and prema, 202
and Rāsa Līlā, 212
and relationship, 170
and root bhaj, 140
and uttama-bhakta, 162n13
Vraja Gopikās as, 212
See also sādhu-sa ṅ ga bhaktākhya, 215
bhakta-rūpa, 215
bhakta-svarūpaka, 215
bhaktāvatāra, 215
bhakti, 42, 44, 74, 157
and abhidheya, 18, 158, 162
as active, 165, 167, 170, 171
affective elements of, 85–86
and Krishna’s internal pleasure potency, 166
Baird on, 67
and Bhagavad Gītā, 2, 164, 210
and Bhagavān, 220
and bhāgavata, 158
and Bhāgavata Purāṇa, 164
and bhaj, 140
and Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī, 110
and bhāva, 171
and Chaitanya, 212, 214
and chanting Krishna’s name, 179n68
and death, 201
defined, 2
as devotional service, 4, 159–161, 167, 170, 219–220n21 (p.262)
bhakti (Cont.) and dharma, 168
Ellwood on, 56
and emotion, 165, 167
and final object of spiritual existence, 126
as freedom, 163
and goal of Krishna- prema, 172
and Goswami, 2, 3
and Govinda, 214
as growth of garden creeper, 166
and haṭha-yoga, 171
and hearing Bhāgavata Purāṇa, 183
Herman on, 75, 76
as highest duty (para-dharma) , 166
and Indian vs. European culture, 77
and intellect, 162, 165
and interreligious theology, 232
and jñāna, 220
and karma, 43, 164, 220
Kenney and Polling on, 62
and Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 159
Krishna as center of, 164, 165
and Krishna consciousness, 21n1, 135
and Krishna’s call to love, 224
and Krishna’s pleasure, 166
as kṛti-sādhyā, 171n46
and liberation, 169
and life based on Krishna sevā, 213
and living theology, 15
and love, 170, 201, 217–223
and love of Krishna and Rādhā, 218–219
and mādhurya-bhakti, 23n7
and mahāmantra, 226
means and end of, 162
and monotheism, 159–160, 165
and moral transgression, 163
and movement from external to internal, 220
and music, 180
as offering of whole heart to the divine, 217, 220
pan-Indic conceptions of, 159–164
and Prabhupāda, 2, 231
and Prabhupāda’s name, 22
and Prabhupāda’s parents, 90, 91
Prabhupāda’s translation of, 166–167
practices of, 170–171
and prapatti, 162n14
as predating Krishna’s appearance, 164
and prema, 204–205
and prema-bhakti-rasa, 220, 223
and privileged knowledge, 186
as rāgānuga-sādhana, 220
and Rāsa dance, 212
and Rāsa Līlā, 212
realization of bhagavān through, 132
as reciprocated embrace of soul for the divine, 211
as relational, 170
ritual and experiential aspects of, 90
and Rūpa Gosvāmin, 165–167
Rūpa Goswāmin’s five principal practices of, 172–199
and sacrifice and birth qualifications, 130
and saguṇa-nirguṇa distinction, 160–161, 165
and sambandha (relationship), 18
and selflessness, 220
and senses, 171
and sevā, 167–172
and Shinn, 63n54, 64
as spreading to foreign lands, 7
as subversive, 159
superiority of, 166
and theology of heart, 217
transformative power of, 174
as translated by devotion, 167
tripartite theism of, 216–217
as ultimate end or perfection, 220
universal nature of, 168
Urquhart on, 101
as vaidhi-sādhana, 220 (p.263)
and Vedas, 2
and vernacularism, 181
and women, 175–176
and yoga, 220
Bhakti Hriday Bon, 34n31
Bhakti Pradip Tīrtha, 34n31
bhakti-sādhana (devotional practice), 49, 224n28
bhakti-śakti (energy of devotion), 135n52
Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī (Bimala Prasad), 104n45, 119n89, 123
Ananta-gopāla-tathya, 113n74
Anubhāṣya, 114n77
and Bhagavad Gītā, 118
and birth and worship, 192, 193
Brahma-saṁhitā, 136n56
and Christianity, 79
commentary on Brahmā Saṁhitā, 218n18
commentary on Caitanya Caritāmṛta, 114
death of, 34
and foreign missions, 34
Gauḍīya Bhāṣya, 113, 114
and Gauḍīya Vaishnava tradition, 57
Gītā and followers of, 118n84
and goṣṭhānandīs vs. bhajanānandīs, 181
and Jesus, 93–94n21
and Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 139
and Māyāpur, 190
and music, 181
and Prabhupāda, 35, 113–115
Prabhupāda’s command from, 33, 34
and Prabhupāda’s devotees, 175
as Prabhupāda’s guru, 108–112
and Prabhupāda’s name, 22
and Prabhupāda’s relationship with Urquhart, 94
and Prabhupāda’s Western audience, 171
and printing press, 182
and revolution, 107
and saṁnyāsa disciples, 111
and Sanskrit, 131
Sindhu-vaibhava-vivṛti, 113n74
and West, 103
and worship, 195
Bhaktivedanta Manor, 72
Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura (Kedarnath Datta), 103–108
Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya, 114n77
and Bhagavad Gītā, 118
“The Bhagavat,” 104
and birth and worship, 193
and Christianity, 79
commentary to Caitanya Caritāmṛta, 114
congregation of, 111
Daśa-mūla-tattva, 126n17
and foreign missions, 34
and Gaura (Chaitanya)-Gadādhara, 195–196
Harināma-cintāmaṇi, 179n70
and Hopkins, 57
Jaiva Dharma, 173
and Krishna, 125–126, 127
and Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 139
Kṛṣṇa-saṁhitā, 105–106
and Prabhupāda, 123
and Prabhupāda’s Western audience, 171
and sambandha, abhidheya, and prayojana, 84
and Sanskrit, 131
Svalikhita-jīvanī, 104
and tradition, 113
traditional schema of, 87
and varṇāśrama-dharma, 169–170
and Yogapīṭha, 190
bhakti-yoga, 76, 84–85n102, 169
Bharadvāj, Banarasinath, 107n53
Bharata Shrestha, 72n74
bhāva (ecstatic emotion), 133, 172, 173, 220n23
See also emotion (p.264) bhāva-bhakti (devotional service in ecstasy), 170, 174, 189, 198
Bhoja, 164n19
Bible, 2, 93n19, 105, 155
See also Christianity; Judaism Bolle, Kees W., 58–59n39
Bon, Svāmī, 191–192
Bose, Netaji Subhash Chandra, 109n60
Brahmā, 134
Brahmajñāna, 128
Brahman, 28n22, 100n37, 167n32, 223
and Bhagavān, 132
and Chaitanya, 138
as divinity of Krishna, 123
as Krishna’s bodily effulgence, 132
realization of, 132
Shinn on, 64
and ultimate reality, 120–121, 131–132
brāhmaṇas, 118
Brāhmaṇas, 124
Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, 179n67, 179n69
Brahmanism, 75
Brahmasūtra See Vedānta Sūtra Brahmā, 23
brahminism, 75, 110n66
Brahmoism, 101
brainwashing, 51, 52–54, 63, 71
Braj, 151, 152, 188
Breckenridge, Carol A., 39
Brockington, John, 164
Bromley, David G., 38, 51
Brooks, Charles R., 34, 65–66, 188, 189
The Hare Krishnas in India, 73–74
Brown, C. Mackenzie, 16, 69n65
Bryant, Edwin, 3–4, 18
Brzezinski, Jan, 78, 79
Buddhism, 8, 68, 101, 121, 130
buddhi-yoga, 169
Buitenen, J. A. B. van, 130
Burr, Angela, 122–123
I Am Not My Body, 65–66
Calcutta, 91, 93n17
Callewaert, Winand, 58n39
Carman, John B. Majesty and Meekness, 31n25
The Theology of Rāmānuja, 207
Cārvākas, 68
caturvyūha, 135n52
Causal Ocean (virajā) , 133
Chaitanya, 34n30, 35, 51n28
and acintya-bhedābheda, 99
and advaita-vāda ideology, 161
audience of, 122, 147, 159
Baird on, 69, 70
and Bengal, 91
and bhakti, 74, 158n2, 159, 169, 212, 214
and Bhaktisiddhānta, 33
and Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura, 84, 106, 107
and birth and worship, 192
and Brahman, 138
and class, 131
and competing beliefs, 121
disciples of, 212
and divine descent of love, 222
divine role imputed to, 215
and divine secrecy, 230
and emotion, 163n18, 164
esoteric visions of, 229
as example of bhakta and mentoring, 213
and Hinduism, 78
Hopkins on, 58
and Judah, 45
and kīrtana, 34
and Krishna, 23, 123, 125, 133n43, 138, 178, 204, 215
and Krishna and Rādhā, 205, 214–215, 218n18, 222, 226
and Krishna and Vraja Gopikās, 226
and Krishna’s tripartite theism, 216
and Māyāpur-Vṛndāvana festival, 189 (p.265)
as model, 212
as paradigmatic bhakta, 204
and Prabhupāda, 23, 80, 85, 86, 101, 116, 212, 230
and prema, 203–204, 205, 212, 213
and saguṇa-nirguṇa conundrum, 161
and saṁkīrtana, 182
and Sanātana Gosvāmin, 126
and Sanskrit, 131
Shinn on, 57
and subversion and legitimation, 131
and systematic theologians, 120
and tat tvam asi vs. oṁ, 138
and tradition, 163n16
and Urquhart, 101n39
and Vallabha, 167
and Vṛndāvana, 188n89
worship of, 195, 196, 197
Chaitanya-Rādhā-Krishna, 196, 216
Chaitanya school, 4
and acintya-bhedābheda, 205
and aesthetics, 163, 164
and Bhagavad Gītā, 117–118
and bhakti, 160, 175
and BhaktivinodaṬhākura, 104
and Brahman, Paramātmā, and Bhagavān, 223
and Caitanya-caritāmṛta, 217
and emotionalism, 161–162
and emotion and intellection, 163–164
and Gauḍīya Vaishnavism, 23n7
and Hare Krishna mahāmantra, 178–179, 181, 204, 226
hermeneutics of, 173
and interreligious theology, 232
and Krishna, 23, 117
and Krishna’s holy name, 178–179
and Navadvīpa-Māyāpur, 190
and orthodoxy vs. heterodox sects, 163
pilgrimage center, Navadvīpa-Māyāpur, 74n82
and Prabhupāda, 25, 166, 176, 209
and Prabhupāda’s audience, 171
and prema, 201, 221n24
and prema-bhakti-rasa, 220–223
and rasa, 218n18
and Rāsa Līlā, 212
secrecy of, 229
theology of, 205–208, 213
tripartite theism of, 216
and Vedānta, 163
and Vṛndāvana, 187, 188
and worship of Krishna, 192
See also Gauḍīya Vaishnavism chanting, 51n28, 72n75, 86, 110–111n66
and bhakti, 179n68
and caste, 192
of Krishna’s holy names, 177–183, 192
of name of Krishna, 138
and Prabhupāda, 43–44, 138, 179, 182, 193, 194
Prabhupāda on, 60n43
and redemption, 33–34
Rochford on, 59
Shinn on, 57
Staal on, 43
three stages of, 179
and Underberg, 60
as weekend activity, 72
See also Hare Krishna mahāmantra;kīrtana (ecstatic public chanting) Chatterjee, Bankim Chandra, 104, 152
Krishna-caritra, 105
cheating, 88
child abuse, 72, 75
Christianity, 54–55n34, 160
Baird on, 69
and Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī, 108
diversity and conflict in, 121
and Hindu-Christian interfaith dialogues, 208
and Hindu theology, 138–139
and living theology, 5, 6
and nonvegetarian diet, 95 (p.266)
Christianity (Cont.) and Otto, 162
pietistic, 56
and Prabhupāda, 78–79, 91, 92, 93–95
and theology, 6, 206, 207, 208
and Urquhart, 97, 99
See also Bible; Jesus; Protestantism Christian missionaries, 138–139, 151, 159
Clooney, Francis X., 8, 18, 28–29, 70n66
“Restoring ‘Hindu Theology’ as a Category in Indian Intellectual Discourse,” 207
Coburn, Thomas B., 88n4
codanas, 128n28
colonialism, 3, 98n30, 138–139, 152
Communism, 73
conversion, 24n11, 71
Baird on, 69
debate surrounding, 47
Kenney and Polling on, 61
predisposing factors for, 61, 63
and sensate personality, 61
Shinn on, 63–64
Singh on, 55
See also International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) Copley, Antony, 95–97
counterculture and Goswami, 10, 11
and Hopkins, 57
and ISKCON, 51, 123
and Judah, 45
Moody on, 48, 49, 50
and Prabhupāda, 3, 46, 82
Cox, Harvey, 56, 57, 160n6
cults, controversy over binding narratives of, 82
and brainwashing, 51
and challenge to establishment values, 52
and ISKCON, 38, 123
and New Vrindaban, 72
and Prabhupāda, 52–54
studies precipitated by, 55, 56, 59, 63–64, 73n76
waning of, 71
See also anticult movement culture, 176n58
American, 8
and bhakti, 7
fear of different, 54
Hopkins on, 57–58
Indian vs. European, 77
Prabhupāda as spreading, 177
Dall, Charles, 104
Daner, Francine J. and aberration, 122–123
The American Children of Krishna, 46, 47
and conversion, 61, 63–64
and ISKCON, 49n26, 59
and Prabhupāda, 48, 50
Das, Radharaman Charan, 110
Das, Rahul Peter, 25n14, 43n9
Dasa, Shukavak N., 79, 103
Datta, Michael Madhusudhan, 104
Davis, Richard H., 155n113
Day, Lal Behari, 95
Dayal, Jai, “The Gurukula System,” 74–75
De, Gour Mohan, 22, 89–91
De, Rajani, 22, 90–91
De, S. K., 143–144, 147, 161n12, 188
Deadwyler, William III (Ravīndra Svarūpa Dāsa), 76–77, 115n78, 156, 207n8
De Nicolas, Antonio, 58n39
De Smet, Richard V., 128, 142n75
Deutsch, Eliot, 115
Devakī, 137
devotion. See bhakta;bhakti dharma, 164, 166, 168
See also varṇāśrama-dharma Dhristarāshtra, 228
Dimock, Edward C., Jr. and Baird, 67, 70
context provided by, 42 (p.267)
and Daner, 48
on Prabhupāda’s Caitanya Caritāmṛta, 185–186
on Sanskrit tradition, 163n16
on translation, 129n31
Doniger, Wendy, 40
Douglas, Mary, 66
drugs, 47, 49, 50, 61n46
Duff, Alexander, 95–96
Dvārakā, 136, 137
Eck, Diana, Darśan, 155
Elkman, Stuart, 84n100, 158n1
Ellwood, Robert S., 56
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 34n30, 105
emotion and aesthetics, 170
and bhakti, 165, 167
and Chaitanya Vaishnavas, 161–162, 163–164
in Gauḍīya Vaishnava tradition, 76–77
and Krishna, 163
and passion (rajo-guṇa) , 77
and Prabhupāda, 161
and Rūpa Gosvāmin, 164n19, 170
and senses, 171
sublimation vs. elimination of, 164
Urquhart on, 101
and Vṛndāvana, 189
and Wilson, 161
See also bhāva Erikson, Erik, 46, 63
eroticism, 101
See also sex ethics, 48–50, 55, 101
evolution, 80, 133
Ewart, D., 96
exclusivism, 42
faith, 1
and devotional service, 198
of human being, 205
and living theology, 6
nature of, 206
as religious tradition, 205
and sensate personality type, 61
Urquhart on, 101
Farquhar, J. N., 105
Modern Religious Movements in India, 97
First World Congress on the Synthesis of Science and Religion, 73n77
Flood, Gavin, 39, 77, 79
Gadādhara, 195–196
Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand, 75, 95, 102, 109, 168
Ganges, 91
Garbhodakaśāyī Vishnu, 134
Garrick, Lore, 9
Gauḍīya as term, 23n7
Gauḍīya Maṭh, 111, 114, 115, 174n51, 175, 176n59, 194, 195
Gauḍīya Vaishnavism, 27
and Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura, 106–107
and Buddhism, 121n4
and Clooney, 28
and Dimock, 42
and embodiment of divinity, 156
form and spirit in, 155–156
and Gauḍīya as term, 23n7
and Hinduism, 77–78
Hopkins on, 57, 59
and ISKCON, 73n76
and Judah, 46
and Krishna, 23, 62n50, 125
and Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 149
and Krishna-Gopāla, 136
and mantras, 146
paramparā institution of, 79
and Prabhupāda, 7, 85, 103
and pramāṇa, 87
and Rajani, 90 (p.268)
Gauḍīya Vaishnavism (Cont.) reason and emotion in, 76–77
sambandha theologized in, 126
and Sanskritic tradition, 131
theological inquiry in, 84
and Urquhart, 93
See also Chaitanya school Gaura-Gadādhara, 196
Gaurakiśora dāsa Bābājī, 108, 171
Gaura-Nitai (Chaitanya-Nityānanda), 196, 197
Geertz, Clifford, 64
Gelberg, Stephen J., 59, 63n54, 71, 73, 78
Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna: Five Distinguished Scholars on the Krishna Movement in the West., 52, 56–57, 76
George, Robin, 51n28
Ghosh, Sisir Kumar, 104, 107n53
Ginsberg, Allen, 40–41, 42, 180
God, 81
and acosmism, 99–100
and attributes, 160–161
and Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī, 111
as English term, 150
as immanent and transcendent, 100
impersonal conception of, 161
incarnate, 56
and Judah, 45
manifold energies of, 70
Merton on, 41
personal, 43, 56
and self, 100
and theomorphic human body, 156
and Urquhart, 93
and world, 100
See also Krishna God (Judeo-Christian) and visual imagery, 155
Godhead, 125
etymology of, 138
goal of union with, 86
Krishna as, 139–140
love of, 49
and material world, 133
and opulence, 136–137, 165
relatively extended through diverse energies, 100
Goffman, Erving, 47, 49n26, 63
Goloka, 136–137
Goloka Vṛndāvana, 188, 198–199
Goodman, Nelson, 149
Gopīnātha and tripartite theism of Krishna, 213, 214, 216
See also Krishna Gopīs/Vraja Gopikās, 211, 212, 214
and Krishna, 214, 222
and Krishna’s exclusive attention, 229
and Krishna’s flute music, 218, 225, 226
and Krishna’s playfulness, 216
and Prabhupāda, 183, 186
and sa-jātīya, 173
as secretly called to love, 229
and spontaneous attraction, 183
and Śukadeva, 152–153
and tripartite theism of Krishna, 216
Gordon, James S., 55, 83n99
Gosvāmin, Jīva, 43n10, 74n80
Goswami, Shrivatsa, 56
Govinda, 191–192, 213, 214
and tripartite theism of Krishna, 216
See also Krishna Great Britain, 77
Great Chain of Being, 77
guṇa-avatāras, 136
Gupta, Sanjukta, 155
guru-kula system, 74–75
gurus, 93n21, 115, 174
as autocratic, 176
and Governing Body Commission, 176
and ISKCON, 174n51
and Prabhupāda’s purports, 116
Haberman, David, 157, 162, 164n19
The Betrayal of Krishna, 151–152
Haight-Ashbury, 46, 47n22, 51 (p.269)
Hair (musical drama), 180
Halbfass, Wilhelm, 107n53, 160n7
Harappans, 75
Hardy, Friedhelm, 124, 141, 164n20
hare (name), 225
Hare Krishna mahāmantra, 72n75, 146
as centering, 110n66
and Chaitanya school, 33n29, 178–179, 181, 204, 226
and Krishna fundamentalism, 76n85
and Prabhupāda, 181, 183n78, 193, 225
as response to Krishna’s call, 225–226
See also chanting; Krishna; mantras Haridāsa Ṭhākura, 181, 182, 192
Harijans, 168
Harmonist, 111
Harrison, George, 65, 187
“The Hare Krishna Mantra,” 180
“My Sweet Lord,” 180
Hatcher, Brian, 121, 147
haṭha-yoga, 171
Hayagriva das See Wheeler, Howard (Hayagriva Swami) Hegel, G. W. F., 100n36, 101
Hein, Norvin J., 207n7
Hemraj, Shilanand, 58n39
Herman, A. L., 77, 166n24
Brief Introduction to Hinduism, 75–76
Herzig, Carl, 9–10
Herzig, James Joseph, 9
Hiltebeitel, Alf, 125
Hinduism, 72, 121, 151
and Bhagavad Gītā, 117
and Chaitanya, 78
and colonial/missionary context, 3
and Herman, 75
and Hindu-Christian dialogues, 208
and ISKCON, 77–78
and orthopraxis, 57, 158
and Prabhupāda, 78
and Protestant missions, 95–97
reformers in, 151
as religion of sensate myths and rites, 63
Hindu-Muslim unity, 168
hippies, 53
Baird on, 68
and Bernhard, 42n7
and cult controversy, 51
freedom from, 45, 46
and Krishna consciousness, 44
stigma of, 43n9, 47
Hiraṇyakaśipu, 62n49
hlādinī-śakti, 133
Holdrege, Barbara, 5, 8
holy place, residence in, 187–190
Hopkins, E. Washburn, 167
Hopkins, Thomas J., 24n12, 48, 56, 90n9, 158
and bhakti, 130
on Prabhupāda’s achievement, 36–37, 71, 74, 103, 103n44, 184
on Prabhupāda’s translations, 57–59
and worship, 193
Hṛdayānanda dāsa Goswami (Howard Resnick), 77
Hunter, Edward, 51n28
idols, 155, 156
impersonalism, 67n61
and Chaitanya, 138
and jñāna, 165
and nirviśeṣa, 121
and Prabhupāda, 26, 101, 102
and Prabhupāda’s purports, 116
and Prabhupāda’s translations, 116, 141
Sharma on, 161
and Urquhart, 102
inattention (pramāda) , 88
India, 56, 156, 173
foreigners in, 74
and Gauḍīya Maṭh, 175
guru in, 176
independence of, 168 (p.270)
India (Cont.) and ISKCON, 73–74
racism in, 130
seen as inferior, 57
South Asian Hindus in, 8
and Urquhart, 99
International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) and academe, 8, 52
as alternative, 72
ancient spiritual tradition of, 56
and association of devotees, 173–177
as authentic Indian missionary movement, 53
as Bengal revitalization movement, 46–47n21
and bhakti, 208
binding narratives about, 39
as bona fide religion, 54
and books, 59–60, 186
and chanting, 194
and Christianity, 79
as Christian-Vaishnava hybrid, 98
conspiratorial theory about, 52
contextualization of, 56–57
and counterculture, 50, 123
and cults, 51, 52, 55, 56, 59, 63–64, 123
and daiva-varṇāśrama, 170
Daner on, 47
as deceptive, 60–61
and dialogue with people of faith, 79
and dissemination of knowledge, 85
and establishment values, 52
ethnographic studies of, 46–48
expansion of, 114
and family life, 177
fear of, 54
finances of, 60
and Gauḍīya Maṭh, 115
and Goswami, 3, 8
Governing Body Commission of, 176
and gurus, 174n51
and Hinduism, 77–78
Hopkins on, 57–59
hostility toward, 52
and India, 73–74
and Indian population of North America, 52
Indian temples of, 11
indifference toward, 71, 72, 123
initial public reception of, 38
Judah on, 44–46
as kitchen religion, 197–198
and Knott, 65
and Krishna-Balaram Temple, 74
and Krishna Consciousness, 55
“The Krishna Consciousness Movement Is Authorized,” 52
literature distribution by, 60
and love of Krishna and Rādhā, 218
as mainstream Hindu faith and practice, 8
and Māyāpur, 190
and Māyāpur-Vṛndāvana festival, 189
and middle-class youth forums, 51
and modernity vs. tradition, 79–80
Moody on, 49–50
and music, 180–181
name of, 26
as new religious movement, 50, 56
and Nityānanda, 196
and origin of soul, 135n49
and other religious traditions as bhakti, 79
as otherworldly, 57
and philosophy vs. theology, 206
and physical and psychological isolation, 60
popular devotional praxis of, 56
and Prabhupāda, 2
Prabhupāda as identifying with, 40
public denial and private rationalization by, 60
public reception of, 21
and rāgānuga-bhakti, 82n98, 199
and Rathayātrā, 197 (p.271)
and Ravīndra Svarūpa, 77
recruitment strategies of, 60
“A Request to the Media: Please Don’t Lump Us In,” 52
Rochford on, 59
and saṁkīrtana, 169n37, 182
San Francisco chapter of, 46
and Sanskrit tradition, 131
and sensate personality, 61–63, 171n44
and sevā, 182
Sharma on, 161
Singh on, 55
social or psychological aberration in, 123
temple in Laguna Beach, California, 49–50
theological and practical rigidities of, 8
theological legitimacy of, 53
as theologically exclusive, 78
and theology of love, 219
as traditional Indian religious group, 52
transmission of heritage by, 79
tripartite theism of, 216–217
Underberg on, 60–61
unlawful imprisonment charges against, 53–55
and Vaishnavism, 3
in Vṛndāvana, 189
and women as temple priests, 193
and worship, 194, 195
See also conversion; recruitment International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc. v. Lee, 72n72
Introvigne, Massimo, 54n34
Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, 104
ISKCON Communications Journal, 73, 76, 77
ISKCON Review, 73, 76
Islam. See Muslims Īśopaniṣad, 35, 118, 161n11
Jagannātha dāsa Bābājī, 108n57
Jagannātha, 197
Jaimini, 128n28, 142n74
Jaiswal, Suvira, 124n14, 140n69
Jayadeva, Gītagovinda, 194
Jayadvaita Swami, 141n72
Jesus, 24, 37
and Krishna, 105
and Luther, 25
and Prabhupāda, 93
and Schweitzer, 22n3
See also Christianity Jīva Gosvāmin and abhidheya, 158n1
and Bhagavad Gītā, 117
and bhagavān in Bhāgavata Purāṇa, 142–144
Gopāla-campū, 188n90
and governing sūtra of Bhāgavata Purāṇa, 26
and Prabhupāda at Rādhā Dāmodara Temple, 34
and Prabhupāda’s Bhāgavata, 113
on Purāṇas vs. Vedas, 88
on reproof, 191
Sandarbhas, 123, 126, 127, 129
Sarva-savādinī commentary to Tattva-sandarbha, 88n3
schema of interpretation of, 87
Tattva-sandarbha, 87n1
and worship, 193
jñāna (knowledge) and bhakti, 164, 165, 171, 220
and Prabhupāda, 43
and Ravīndra Svarūpa, 77
See also knowledge jñāna-yoga, 75, 76
jñānins (knowers), 132
Johnson, Gregory, 46, 50, 4746
Judah, J. Stillson, 59, 61, 69n64, 71
Hare Krishna and the Counterculture, 44–46
Judaism, 8, 9, 11, 54–55n34, 121
Judeo-Christian heritage, 55, 156
Jung, Carl, 61 (p.272)
kāla, 134
Kalisantaraṇa Upaniṣad, 179n67
kali-yuga, 33n29, 34, 61, 68, 80, 88
kāma, 166
Kaṁsa, 137
Kāraṇodakaśāyī Vishnu, 133–134
karma and Baird, 66, 70
and bhakti, 164, 165–166, 220
and creation, 134
and Ravīndra Svarūpa, 77
and return to Godhead, 135
and science, 81
and Urquhart, 92
karma-yoga, 75, 76, 168, 169
Kashiprasad Ghosh, 104
Kavikarṇapūra, Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā, 195–196n112
Kenney, J. Frank, 39–40n3, 46–47n21, 78
The Hare Krishna Character Type, 61–63, 171n44
Keshub Chandra Sen, 104
King, Anna, 16
King, Richard, 97, 103n41
Kinsley, David, 124n14
kīrtana (ecstatic public chanting), 10–11, 34, 90
See also chanting; saṁkīrtana kīrtayantaḥ, 44
Kliever, Lonnie D., 121
Klostermaier, Klaus K., 163, 201n2
“The Education of Human Emotions,” 79
Hṛ dayavidyā,” 207n7
“Will India’s Past Be America’s Future?”, 79
Knott, Kim, 79–80, 93n17
My Sweet Lord, 65
knowledge and bhakti, 186
and devotion, 91n12
and ISKCON, 85
Krishna as final object of perfect, 139
object of valid (prameya) , 84
sources of (pramāṇa) , 84, 84–85n102, 85, 87–119
transmission of, 85
valid (pramā) , 87
See also jñāna (knowledge); prameya (that which is knowable) Kopf, David, 103n41
Koran, 69
Krishna as Absolute Truth, 144–145
age of, 124
and Arjuna, 137, 224
āsakti (attachment) to, 198
as attractive, 214
as avatāra, 143
as avatārin, 143
Baird on, 67, 68, 70
beauty of, 2, 213, 214, 215, 216, 224, 225
and bhadralok, 105
and Bhagavad Gītā, 210
as bhagavān, 142–145
and Bhāgavata Purāṇa, 26n17, 105
as bhakta, 215
and bhakti, 164, 165, 172
and Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī, 111
and Bhaktivinoda, 105–106, 125–126, 127
and bhāva-bhakti, 198
birth of, 136n53, 143
and Brahman, 123, 132
and Chaitanya, 23, 123, 138, 204, 216, 222, 226
and Chaitanya theologians, 23, 117
and chanting Krishna’s name, 179
character of, 151–157
and Chatterjee, 105
as complete, 170
as cosmic deity and ocean of bliss, 45
as cowherd, 135n52, 136–137, 214
and creation, 133–134
delight/delightfulness of, 213, 214, 215, 216
and divine intimacy, 31 (p.273)
divine representations of, 139
and divine secrecy, 229–230
divinity of, 151, 152, 154
as duplicating self, 222
and emotion, 163
eternal associates (parikaras) of, 133
external (bahiraṅga) potency of, 132
and flute, 137, 140, 151, 211, 214, 218–219, 224, 225, 226, 229
form of, 137, 139, 192
and fullness of deity, 214
and Garbhodakaśāyī Vishnu, 134
as Godhead, 139–140, 153
as Gopīnātha, 213, 214, 216
and Gopīs/Vraja Gopikās, 137, 140, 183, 186, 214, 222, 225
as Govinda, 191–192, 213, 214, 216
as highest manifestation of divine, 223–224
historical, 124–125
holy name of, 178
images of, 85, 211
infinite energies of, 84–85n102
and Jesus, 105, 151
and Judah, 45
as Kāraṇodakaśāyī Vishnu, 133–134
Kenney and Polling on, 62, 63
and knowledge, 133, 139
līlās of, 143, 151–157, 214, 222, 225
living beings as separated parts of, 84–85n102
love call of, 210–211, 214, 216, 223–226
love for, 137, 166, 218–219
love for Rādhā, 203–204, 212, 213, 218–219, 222, 226
love for souls, 226–229
love of, 2, 136, 137, 166, 172, 226–227, 228, 229
and love of bhakta, 136, 215
and love theology, 217–218
as Madanamohana, 213–214, 215–216
and Madhva, 23n8
material energy (māyā-śakti) of, 132
and māyā, 84–85n102
and memory, 171–172
as multiple, 139
mystic potency (yoga-māyā) of, 137
as ocean of rasa, 84–85n102, 126
as origin of other forms of Godhead, 133
and other bhagavān figures, 141–142, 143
and other deities, 43
and pañcatattva (five principles) as bhakta, 215, 216
paramaṁvacaḥ (supreme message) of, 228
Paramātmā (Supersoul) as localized expansion of, 132
paramātmā feature of, 133
personal and intimate identities of, 228
phases of divinity of, 213
playfulness of, 2, 213, 214, 215, 216
and potency to maintain existence, 132–133
and Prabhupāda, 58–59, 64, 196
and prema, 84–85n102, 126, 158, 172, 179, 214
pure name (śuddha-nāma) of, 179
as puruṣa incarnations, 133
as Puruṣottama, 139–140
as Rādhā and Krishna, 133n43
and Rādhārāṇī, 133
and rāsa dance, 152, 183, 186
and Rāsa Līlā, 212
and rasika-śekhara, 215
relationships of, 85, 173, 210
revelation of divinity of, 211
as sambandha, 125, 158
and saṁdhinī-śakti, 133
sarva-guhyatama (greatest secret of all) of, 228 (p.274)
Krishna (Cont.) service to, 168–169
Shinn on, 63, 64
and soul as Vibhinnangsha, 126
and souls engrossed by Prakriti, 126
and spiritual and material phenomena, 84–85n102, 126
and spiritual bliss (ānanda) , 133
spiritual energy of, 132
S. Radhakrishnan on, 151
as suhṛt, 227
as Supersoul, 156
as supreme, 23, 31, 139
sweetness of, 152, 153, 165
tripartite theism of, 216–217
as ultimate goal, 43, 227
as ultimate principle (bhagavat-tattva) , 125
and ultimate reality, 132
and ur-Krishna, 124
Urquhart on, 101
and Vallabha, 167
and Vishnu, 23
in visual arts, 218–219
and Vṛndāvana, 136–137, 187–188, 190
worship of, 124, 191–198, 195
as yearning for souls, 218, 224, 228
See also God; Hare Krishna mahāmantra Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 65
and Absolute as ineffable and impersonal, 151
and Bhagavad Gītā, 41, 141
and bhagavān, 140–145
and Bhāgavata Purana, 149
and bhakti, 62, 159, 165, 170
contexts of, 149
and conversion, 64
and devotional service, 167
and five principal practices of devotional service, 198
and impersonalism, 101
and intimate līlās, 151–157
and Judah, 45
and Kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam, 4, 26, 142, 144, 145, 149
as liberating, 153
as mantra, 145, 157
and medieval and colonial past, 150
and metaphor, 154
as Prabhupāda’s mahāvākya, 127–132, 137–138
and Prabhupāda’s predecessors, 139
precedents for phrasing of, 138–139
and rāsa dance with gopīs, 186–187
as root metaphor, 25, 85, 149
and saguṇa and nirguṇa distinction, 161
and sambandha, 84–85n102
Sanskritic form of, 149
and senses, 171
and tradition’s root metaphor, 144
as translation, 4
and worship, 76
Krishna-Balaram Temple, 74, 189
Krishna consciousness, 110n66, 127n25, 169
and association of devotees, 174
Baird on, 67, 68
and bhakti, 21n1
and chanting, 179, 182–183
as genuine Vedic way, 44
Hopkins on, 59
ideal of, 55
intense desire for, 173
Klostermaier on, 79
Knott on, 65
Moody on, 49
as prayojana, 158
and prema, 200
ritualistic and experiential aspects of, 57–58
and Vṛndāvana, 189
Krishna-Gopāla, 136–137, 140, 152
Kṛṣṇa (name), 225 (p.275)
Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja, Caitanya Caritāmṛta, 123, 195–196n112
and Bhagavad Gītā, 117, 230
and Bhāgavata Purāṇa, 230
and bhakti, 162, 171n44, 172, 173, 177
and Bhaktivinoda, 105
and Buddhism, 121
and Chaitanya tradition, 118
and chanting, 179, 182
and Krishna and Chaitanya, 203, 216
and Krishna’s love call, 226
and love, 202
and Prabhupāda, 209–210
and Prabhupāda’s mahāvākya, 127, 129n30, 143n78, 145
and Prabhupāda’s study program, 119
Prabhupāda’s summary of, 35–36n32
Prabhupāda’s translation of, 185–186
and prema, 209–210, 215
prema-bhakti-rasa in, 219, 222
and rasika-śekhara, 214–215
and sambandha, 126
secrecy in, 229–230
and theology, 212, 213, 217
Kṣīrodakaśāyī Vishnu, 134
Kurukshetra, Battlefield of, 41
Lakṣmaṇa, 195
Lalita Prasad Datta, 104n45
Levertov, Denise, 40, 41, 42n6
Levine, Faye, The Strange World of the Hare Krishnas, 44n15
Lifton, Robert Jay, 51n28
Lipner, Julius, 79, 88n2
on Goswami, 4–5
on Goswami’s dissertation, 17, 18, 200
on Goswami’s integrity, 16
and innovation, 31
and language, 32
and Rāmānuja, 100n37
and Śaṅkara, 148
tutelage of Goswami by, 13
Lorenz, Ekkehard, 79, 113, 114, 116, 176n60
love, 198
and bhakti, 217–223
from every religious tradition, 230–231
of Godhead, 49
and Judah, 45
and Moody, 49
and selfishness and conditioned life, 221
theology of, 201
and Yogamāyā, 229
See also Krishna; prema Luther, Martin, 25
Macaulay, Thomas Babington, 102, 105n47
Macnicol, Nicol, Indian Theism, 97n29
Madanamohana, 126, 191, 213–214
and tripartite theism of Krishna, 215–216
Mādhvas, 125, 169–170n42
Madsen, Finn, 79
Mahābhārata, 59, 164
mahābhāva, 133, 203–204
mahābhāva-svarūpa, 133
mahāvākyas (great utterances)defined, 128–129
and mantras, 145, 146, 147, 148, 150n97
of Prabhupāda, 4, 25, 127–132, 150, 153, 209
single purpose of, 142
mantras and deities, 155
and mahāvākyas (great utterances), 145, 146, 147, 148, 150n97
and mind-control techniques, 52
and women, 175
See also Hare Krishna mahāmantra manvantara-avatāras, 135–136
Mariott, McKim, 74n80
married couples, 111n68
Matchett, Freda, 164 (p.276)
material world, 133
creation of, 133
as devoid of meaning and reality, 61n46
pessimism about, 100
and soul, 134
three modes (guṇas) of, 134
Mathurā, 136, 137, 172
Mathurā-Vāsa, 187–190
Matilal, Bimal Krishna, 154
Māyāpur, West Bengal, 190, 201
Bhaktisiddhānta and Brahmins in, 193
and Bhaktivinoda, 107
Goswami in, 11, 12, 13, 14, 201
and Nṛsiṁhadeva, 194
Māyāpur-Vṛndāvana festival, 189
māyāśakti, 133, 134
McDermott, Rachel, 8, 16
McFague, Sallie, 32, 154, 155, 156, 157
media, 51, 83
Melton, J. Gordon, 40n4, 52, 53, 54, 83n99
Merton, Thomas, 40, 41, 42n6
metaphor, 32, 147–148, 154–155
and models, 154
root, 144, 149–151, 157
Methodism, 57
Minor, Robert, 67n60
Mohan, Gour, 32–33
Mohanty, J. N., 115–116
mokṣa (liberation), 166, 168
Moody, Jonathan F., “Ethics and Counter Culture,” 48–50
Mumme, Patricia Y., 128
Murty, K. Satchidananda, 129
music, 179–181
See also chanting; Krishna Muslims, 121, 122, 168, 192
Muster, Nori, Betrayal of the Spirit, 73n78
nāma-saṁkīrtana, 177–183
Nārada, 63n52, 93–94n21, 135n52, 136, 142, 178
Bhakti Sūtra, 201, 203, 217
Nārada Pancarātra, 62n51, 171
Nārāyaṇa, 124, 140, 143
Navadvīpa-Māyāpur, 190
neo-Vedānta, 101
Newman, John Henry Cardinal, 105
New Vrindaban, 72
New York Supreme Court, 54
Nimbārka, 125
Niranjana, Tejaswini, 150
nirviśeṣa, 121
niṣṭhā, 198
Nitāi-Gauracandra, 196
Nityānanda, 121n4, 195, 196, 197
nondualism, 28n22, 67n61
Nṛsiṁhadeva, 194, 195
Nye, Malory, 72n73, 77
O’Connell, Joseph T., 49n25, 78, 169n39, 186n85
O’Connor, June, 39
Orientalists, 102, 151, 159, 160, 161
Otto, Rudolf, 162, 231
India’s Religion of Grace and Christianity Compared and Contrasted, 207
Padoux, Andre, 148
Palmer, Susan J., 79–80
Pāncarātra Āgamas, 192
Pāncarātra theology, 155
Pāncarātric vyūhas, 124
pancaratrika system, 110n66
pantheism, 99–100, 101, 102
pāramārthika, 78
Paramātmā, 125, 126n18, 131–132, 134, 148, 223
Paraśurāma, 93–94n21, 135n52
paribhāṣā-sūtra, 26n17
Patanjali, 44
Patton, Laurie L., “Authority, Anxiety, and Canon,” 115
Pereira, Jose, Hindu Theology, 207n7
personal-impersonal dialectic, 85 (p.277)
personalism, 102
See also impersonalism; Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead philosophy, 206, 208
Polling, Tommy H., The Hare Krishna Character Type, 61–63, 171n44
Pollock, Sheldon, “Deep Orientalism?”, 129–130
polytheism, 101
postmodernism, 150
Potter, Karl H., 128
Prabhupāda, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami, 2
and Apollo moon-landing, 80–81
appearance of, 36
audience of, 23, 120, 121, 122, 147, 150, 157, 159, 171, 175, 199
authority of, 112–119
background of, 5, 6–7
and Back to Godhead, 35, 112
Baker Street residence, 81n96
and Bhagavad Gītā, 43–44, 84n100, 117, 118, 148, 209–210
Bhagavad-gītā As It Is, 40, 41, 42, 67, 114
and Bhāgavata Purāṇa, 35–36n32, 112, 113, 118, 142–145, 152, 183–187, 209–210, 211
and Bhaktisiddhānta, 33, 34, 108–112, 113–115
as Bhaktivedānta, 22, 161
biography of, 27
birth of, 32
and books, 24, 59–60, 113, 182–183
and British Rāj, 33
and Caitanya Caritāmṛta, 209–210, 212
and Chaitanya, 23, 116, 212, 230
and Chaitanya tradition, 25, 166, 209
as chosen, 34
citation of texts by, 147
and commentarial tradition, 115–117, 122
commentaries on Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, 52–53
commentary of, 24, 58, 112–119, 140–141
and commentary of Sanātana Gosvāmin, 114
commentary on Bhagavad Gītā, 35–36n32, 115, 210
commentary on Bhāgavata Purāṇa, 35–36n32
commentary on Caitanya Caritāmṛta, 35–36n32, 114, 185–186
conspiratorial theory about, 52
and creativity, 147, 157
on credentialled study texts, 118–119
cultural context of, 5
and cultural transmission, 7, 23, 56, 122
death of, 3, 12
disappointment in personal life and business career, 33, 34
and doctrinal novelty, 135n49
Easy Journey to Other Planets, 80n95
education of, 6, 33, 79, 91, 92–95, 98–102, 150
and father (Gour Mohan De), 89–91
and finances, 35, 60n43
and foundational texts, 209
as founder- ācārya, 70, 85
four prohibitions of, 36
and Franklin and Marshall College courses, 57n37
and Gandhi, 95, 102, 109
and Gauḍīya Maṭh, 115
and Gauḍīya tradition, 35, 85, 103
genealogical descent of, 115
and Ginsberg, 40–41, 42
godbrothers of, 74n82, 176, 177n61
and Goswami, 3, 10–11, 12, 15, 27, 73–74n79, 208
and Harrison, 180
human portrait of, 28
humility of, 34–35
as identifying with ISKCON, 40
and Indian independence, 33
indifference toward, 82–83 (p.278)
Prabhupāda (Cont.) inheritance of, 27
innovation of, 7, 30, 31, 157, 170–172
as intolerant, 122
invocational prayer to self, 26
kīrtana performance by, 10–11
“The Krishna Consciousness Movement Is the Genuine Vedic Way,” 43
Kṛṣṇa, The Supreme Personality of Godhead, 26, 35–36n32, 89, 114, 209n10
leadership of, 24–25, 37
letters to Judah, 45n17
letter to editor of Los Angeles Times, 43
letter to Gandhi, 168
letter to Goswami, 60n43
letter to Nandarāṇī, 138
Life Comes from Life, 80n95
marries Rādhārāṇī Datta, 33
mission of, 5, 25, 36, 101, 150, 159, 173, 196
and mother (Rajani), 32, 33, 90, 91
name of, 22, 32
The Nectar of Devotion, 35–36n32, 49n25, 118, 119, 165, 173, 193, 198
The Nectar of Instruction, 118
in New York, 2, 122
New York storefront temple of, 36
original contributions by, 159
and other religious traditions, 78, 231
and paintings, 184–185
parents of, 32–33, 89–91
and polemical debate, 67–70, 83
as priest, 37
purports of, 35, 36, 41, 46, 67, 116
and rasika-śekhara, 215
rejection of degree by, 95, 102
as renewer of religion, 37
and Rūpa Gosvāmin, 165
in San Francisco, 122
and Sanskrit, 113–114
and Sanskrit canon, 129–131
“Scholars Deluded,” 151
scholarship of, 42
at Scottish Churches’ College, Calcutta, 33
as self-consciously religious thinker, 66
situational character of thought of, 87
Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, 48n24, 179
Śrī Nāmāmṛta, 145n85
succession controversies following death of, 60
summary of Rūpa Gosvāmin, Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, 114
teachers of, 89–92
Teachings of Lord Caitanya, 35–36n32, 209n10
theology of, 6, 7, 24, 25, 55, 113, 116, 122, 123, 208, 216–217
time spent in India, 73–74n79
and title Bhaktivedānta, 34
and tradition, 7, 23, 25, 27, 29, 30, 117, 159
translation of Bhagavad Gītā, 35, 75–76, 140–141, 148
translation of Bhāgavata Purāṇa, 26, 35, 113–114
translation of Īśopaniṣad, 35, 118
translations of, 4, 24, 25, 48n24, 58, 118, 134n47, 140–141, 157, 166–167, 174, 215
travel to America, 35
and Urquhart, 92–95, 98–102
Vaishnava upbringing of, 94
voluminousness of thought of, 39
and West, 71n68, 74
and Western cultural hegemony, 36
Prahlāda, 62, 74–75
pramā (valid knowledge), 87
pramāṇa (sources of knowledge), 69n65, 85
and Prabhupāda’s early life, 87–119
See also knowledge prameya (that which is knowable), 84–85n102, 87, 123
prasāda, 197–198
prasthāna-trayī, 209
prayojana, 210
and bhakti, 208, 209, 215
Caitanya Caritāmṛta as, 213 (p.279)
as hermeneutic division, 84, 126
and love of Krishna, 18, 86, 168, 200
and rāgānuga-bhakti, 199
prema, 18, 199, 219–220n21
and Bhagavad Gītā, 213
and Bhāgavata Purāṇa, 211–212, 213, 220–221
and bhakti, 172
of bhāva, 220n23
and Chaitanya, 203–204, 205, 212, 213, 222
and chanting Krishna’s name, 179
dāsya, 221
as for and from the divine, 221
divine playfulness of, 214
as essence of hlādinī potency, 133
and Goswami, 200
indescribability of, 202
and Krishna, 84–85n102, 126, 158, 214
and Krishna and Vraja Gopīkās, 214
of Krishna as final object, 84–85n102
and Krishna consciousness, 21n1
and Krishnadāsa Kavirāja’s Caitanya Caritāmṛta, 212, 213
and love for Krishna as ultimate aim of study, 119
and mahābhāva, 203–204
and mahāmantra, 226
as manifest in Krishna, 214
and Prabhupāda, 209, 210, 212–213
and prema-bhakti-rasa, 220–221
as priority in Krishna theology, 224n28
and prīti or prīta, 213
and priya, 213
and Rāsa Līlā, 211–212
sākhya, 221
śānta, 221
as secret, mysterious, and inexpressible, 231
seven stages to reach, 202
śṛṅgāra, 221
stages within, 202
as subsuming soul and the divinity, 221
as transfigurative, 201
uncontainable nature of, 200–205
vātsalya, 221
See also love prema-bhakti (devotional service in love of God), 166, 170
prema-bhakti-rasa, 219–223, 224, 231
Prentiss, Karen, 161–162, 167n29
The Embodiment of Bhakti, 159
Protestantism, 8, 56, 95–98, 102, 160
See also Christianity Purāṇas, 88, 101
Purāṇic Krishna-Gopāla, 124
purāṇic sources, 15
purāṇic universe, 81
Puritanism, 56
puruṣa-avatāras, 135
Puruṣottama, 139–140
Puyang-Martin, Mi, 180–181
Qur’ān, 2
Rādhā, 80
in Prabhupāda’s commentary, 153
and tripartite theism of Krishna, 216
in visual arts, 218–219
Rādhā Dāmodara Temple, 34
Rādhā-Krishna, worship of, 195, 196
Rādhā-Krishna līlā, 222
Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli, 116, 147, 151, 154
Rādhārāṇī (Rādhikā), 90, 91, 133, 137, 153, 173, 196, 222
See also Rādhā Rādhārāṇī Datta, 33
rāgānugā, 86
rāgānuga-bhakti, 49, 82n98, 107, 198–199
rāgānuga-bhakti-sādhana, 79
rāgānuga-sādhana, 189, 196
Rāma, 194–195 (p.280)
Ramana Maharshi, 75, 76
Rāmānanda Raya, 230
Rāmānuja, 28n22, 67n61, 70, 100n37, 128, 207
Rāmānujaite tridaṇḍi-svāmin, 111n68
Ramanujan, A. K., 160–161
Rāmāyaṇa, 164
rasa, 86, 218n18
and Advaita Vedānta, 86
and Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura, 106
connection between two souls in, 229
and Kenney and Polling, 62n50
Krishna as ocean of, 84–85n102, 126
and prema-bhakti-rasa, 221–222
Shinn on, 64
as taste or prevailing feeling, 219–220n21
theory of, 163
and Vaishnava aestheticians, 63–64n57
rāsa, 221
Rāsa Līlā, 211–212, 214, 216, 218, 222, 225
Rāsa Maṇḍala, 226
Rāsamaṇḍala dāsa, 77
rasika-śekhara, 214–215
Rathayātrā, 197
Ravīndra Svarūpa Dāsa See Deadwyler, William III (Ravīndra Svarūpa Dāsa ) reader-oriented literary theory, 28, 70n66
reality nondual or without equal (advaya-jñāna-tattva) , 131–132
rebirth, 66, 70, 135
recruitment, 24, 36, 71
in airports, 71–72
and Baird, 66
and hippies, 46
in middle-class youth forums, 51–52
Rochford on, 59
See also conversion; International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) reincarnation, 81, 92
Reis, John P., 48, 50
“God Is Not Dead, He Has Simply Changed Clothes … ”, 46, 47
renunciation, balanced, 176–177
revelation, 207, 208
revivalistic movements, 46–47n21
Ricoeur, Paul, 39–40, 144, 147, 149
Robbins, Thomas, 83n99
Rochford, E. Burke, Jr., 24n11, 61, 72n73, 182
Hare Krishna in America, 59–60
Hare Krishna Transformed, 72n74
Rorty, Richard, 147
Rost, Reinhold, 34n30
Rothstein, Mikael, 81
Rudin, James, 54–55n34
Rukmiṇīdevī, 195–196n112
Rūpa Gosvāmin, 162
and bhakti, 165–167, 169, 171n44, 177
Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, 35–36n32, 114, 118, 136n55, 162n13, 165n21, 169, 171n44, 171n47, 172, 173, 177, 198
and bhakti’s five principal practices, 172–199
and bhāva, 174
and emotion, 164n19, 170
and hearing Bhāgavata Purāṇa, 172, 183, 187
and Jesus, 93–94n21
Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta, 179n69
Mathurā Māhātmya, 188n89
and nāma-saṁkīrtana (collective praise of divine names), 172, 177, 178, 182
and nondevotees, 177
and residence in Mathurā, 172, 187, 189, 190
and sādhu-saṅga (association with devotees), 172, 173, 174
and true vairāgya, 191n100
Upadeśāmṛta, 119n87, 177
and worship, 172, 191–192, 193–194
and yukta-vairāgya (balanced renunciation), 176–177 (p.281)
śabda (verbal testimony), 69n65, 87–88, 89
sādhana, 162, 188–189, 198
sādhana-bhakti (devotional service in practice), 171, 173, 174
and Rūpa Gosvāmin, 172
vaidhī (rule-directed), 170
worship of deity form of Krishna, 192
See also bhakti sādhu-saṅga (association with devotees), 173–177, 198
See also bhakta sādhya, 162
sahajiyā, 104, 109, 163
sa-jātīya, 173
śaktyāveśa-avatāras, 135n52, 136
Saliba, John, 54–55n34
salvation, 101, 208
sambandha (relationship), 18, 85, 213
and beauty, 215
and Bhagavad Gītā, 210
and bhakti, 208
as hermeneutic, 84
relationship with Krishna as, 123–127, 133
as theologized in Gauḍīya literature, 126
Śambhu (Śiva), 134
Sambidānanda Dāsa, 34n31
saṁdhinī-śakti, 133
Saṁhitās 25n14
saṁkīrtana (chanting), 59, 60–61, 86
See also chanting; kīrtana (ecstatic public chanting) saṁnyāsa, 22, 111, 171
samvit-śakti, 133
Sanātana Gosvāmin, 114, 191, 192
Vaishnava-toṣaṇī, 114n77
sandharbhas, 84n100
Sanjaya, 228
Śaṅkara, 32, 133
Advaita (nondualism) of, 23n8, 28n22, 67n61, 99, 100
and literal vs. figurative usage, 148
and mahāvākyas, 128
and Prabhupāda, 101
and repetition, 145n87
sectarian interests of, 70
and tat tvam asi vs. oṁ, 138
Śaṅkarācārya, 43n12
Śaṅkarācārya eka-daṇḍin, 111n68
Śaṅkara school, 35
Sanskrit, 102
Sanskrit canon, 129–131
Sanskrit poetics, 15
saparyā, 84n100
sarvopaniṣado gāvaḥ, 43n12
Satsvarūpa dāsa Goswami, Śrīla Prabhupāda-līlāmṛta, 27, 90
Śaunaka Ṛṣi dāsa, 73
Schmidt, Peter, 78–79, 90–93, 94
Schopenhauer, Arthur, 101
Schweig, Graham M., 212n14
on bhagavān, 25n15, 140n67
on dharma and bhakti, 168
on gauḍa, 23n7
on gītā, 224n29
on prema, 221n25
on Rāsa Līlā, 152n104
and religious traditions as forms of bhakti, 79, 231
and Veṇu Gīta, 225n31
Schweitzer, Albert, The Quest of the Historical Jesus, 22n3
science, 73, 80–82
Selengut, Charles, 37n33
sense perception (pratyakṣa) , 69n65, 88n3
senses, 121
and Bhagavad Gītā, 171
and bhakti, 171
Daner on, 46n21
gratification of, 62n48
imperfection of (karaṇāpāṭava) , 88
Kenney and Polling on, 61–63 (p.282)
senses (Cont.) and Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, 171
and material body for soul, 135
and Prabhupāda’s audience, 171
proper use of, 171
as royal path to bondage, 171
and sādhana-bhakti, 171
Urquhart on, 101
sevā (service) and bhakti, 167–172
and Prabhupāda, 182
See also bhakti;bhāva-bhakti;prema-bhakti (devotional service in love of God); sādhana-bhakti (devotional service in practice) sex, 62n50, 116, 171
Sharma, B. G., 219n19
Sharma, Krishna, 163
Bhakti and the Bhakti Movement, 160, 161
Sharpe, Eric, 66n58, 71n68, 122
Shinn, Larry D., 59n42
and brainwashing, 51n28
and dance and chanting, 56–57
The Dark Lord, 63–64
and ISKCON, 73, 160n6, 174
and music, 180
Shrivatsa Goswami, 58, 164n20
Shukavak N. Dasa, 79, 103–104, 105n51, 139n63
Simon, Bertha, 9
Singh, Chandralekha P., “Hare Krishna,” 55
Sinha, K. P., A Critique of A. C. Bhaktivedanta, 73n78
Sītā, 195
Sītā-Rāma, 195
Śiva, 134
Six Goswamis, 212
Smith, Frederick, 159, 164n20, 167, 175
Smith, W. C., 27n20
smṛtis, 88
smṛti vs. śruti, 43–44
Soderblom, Nathan, 162
Soskice, Janet and mahāvākya, 149, 150, 153–154
and metaphor, 32, 147–148, 155, 156
souls and birth, death, disease, and old age, 135
individual, 134–135
Krishna’s love for, 226–229
and love of Krishna, 226–228
material body for, 135
as selfish, 228
and Supreme Personality of Godhead, 135
transmigration of, 135n49
Spinoza, Baruch, 100n36, 101
spiritual energies three ultimate, 132–138
śraddhā (faith), 164, 198
Śrīdhara, B. R., 175n54, 204n5
Śrīdhara Svāmin, 105, 113, 144, 145
Śrīmad Bhagavad-gītā, 141
Srinivas, M. N., 74n80
Śrī Vaishnavas, 125
Śrī Vaishnavism, 28
śṛṅgāra-rasa, 221–222
śruti, 43–44, 88, 128
Staal, Johan Frederik (Frits), 42–44, 45, 146n89
Stewart, Tony K., 185–186
Subrahmanyam, Korda, 142
śuddhādvaita (purified nondualism) school of thought, 167n32
Sukthankar, V. S., 125
Suleri, Sara, The Rhetoric of English India, 98n30
Supreme Court, 72
Supreme Personality of Godhead, 132–134, 135–136, 135n52, 137, 140
See also Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Suthers, Albert E., 139n64
svayaṁ-rūpa, 135
sweetness (mādhurya) , 136–137 (p.283)
tad-ekātmā, 135
Tagore, Dvijendranath, 104
Tagore, Gajendranath, 104
Tagore, Satyendranath, 104
Tamal Krishna Goswami (Thomas George Herzig), 9, 23n9
and American Academy of Religion, 15
background of, 9
and bhakti, 2, 3, 11
and brother Carl, 9–10
burial in Māyāpur, 11, 14
character of, 11, 15–16
and counterculture, 10, 11
and Dallas, Texas base, 12
and death as theme, 13, 200
death of, 2, 11, 14, 16, 200–201
diagnosed with cancer, 13
disciples of, 12
and dissertation development, 13
and drama, 15
The Drama of Lord Jagannātha, 12, 15
“Dying the Good Death,” 13
education of, 2, 10, 11, 12–13, 15
The Final Pastimes of Śrīla Prabhupāda, 15
and Govindadeva, 191n99
in Hamburg, 11
and Hindu-Christian interfaith dialogues, 208
and Indira Gandhi, 197n114
integrity of, 16
and interreligious theology, 232
and ISKCON, 3
and ISKCON centers in India, 11
and Johnson, 47
and Judaism, 11
as key disciple and intimate associate of Prabhupāda, 3
last pilgrimage journey to Māyāpur, 13
leadership of, 1–2, 11–12, 14
in London, 11
love for arts, 11
and managerial ecclesiastical board, 11
meeting with Prabhupāda, 11
missionary activity of, 11, 12
named Tamal Krishna Das, 11
named Tamal Krishna Goswami, 12
in Paris, 11
and pilgrimage, 190
and Prabhupāda, 10–11, 12, 27, 208
Prabhupāda Antya Līlā, 12
as Prabhupāda’s assistant, 73–74n79
and prema, 200
and pure devotees, 184
and religious and academic communities, 8
religious and intellectual integrity of, 5
and renunciate order of sannyāsa, 12
on Sanskrit poetics, 15
scholarship of, 4–5, 16
search for father figure by, 9, 10
separation of parents of, 9
at Southern Methodist University, 12, 15
and theology, 205, 208
in United States, 12
at University of Cambridge, 2, 12–13, 15
and Vaishnavism, 2–3
and West Coast, 11
and world headquarters in Māyāpur, 11
tantrism, 104
Thapar, Romila, 97, 98
theology, 205–208
and Christianity, 5, 6, 208
comparative, 206
and contemporary manifestation of tradition, 7
fulfillment, 97, 101, 102, 159
and innovation, 7
interreligious, 231–232
and Judah, 44
of love, 201
metaphorical, 155
and non-Christian traditions, 6
originality in, 7 (p.284)
theology (Cont.) and Prabhupāda, 6
as relational, 32
Rochford on, 59
social theories based on, 49
Vaishnava, 207
wholeness in, 6
theology, living, 5–8, 205
and bhakti, 85, 170
of Krishna bhakti, 15
of Prabhupāda, 3, 4, 25, 122, 230
total material energy (hiraṇmaya-mahat-tattva) , 134
Towler, Robert, 72n73
Tracy, David, 206
tradition and amalgam of past and present, 18
and Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī, 108, 110
and Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura, 108
commentarial, 7
cumulative, 18, 27n20
and disciplic succession, 116
as fixed code or techniques and values, 30
Hopkins on, 57–58
and innovation, 7
of interpretation, 150
interpretation of, 76
as modality of change, 30–31, 159
and modernity, 30
and Prabhupāda, 7, 23, 25, 27, 29, 30, 117, 159
preservation and adjustment of, 27
as style, 30
ten foundational truths of, 84–85n102
those outside vs. inside, 27
transcendental meditation (TM), 81
Tubb, Gary, 15
Underberg, Larry R., “Analysis of the Rhetoric of ISKCON,” 60–61
universal dissolution (pralaya) , 134
universalism, 57, 110, 168, 175
Upaniṣads, 25n14, 43n12, 209n9
authority of, 163n16
and bhakti, 164
and Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura, 105
and Herman, 75
meaning in, 28–29
and śabda and śruti, 88
saguṇa and nirguṇa in, 161n11
Urquhart on, 101
Urquhart, William Spence and bhakti, 159
and God’s personality, 138
influence of, 79
and Jesus, 93
and morality, 105, 163
Pantheism and the Value of Life, 98
and Prabhupāda, 94, 98–102
and Prabhupāda’s mahāvākya, 150
and theology, 92–95, 97
Uttar Pradesh, 188
vaidha-bhakti-sādhana, 79
vaidha sādhana, 189
vaidhī bhakti, 49, 74n81, 86, 199
Vaikuṇṭha planets, 198–199
vairāgya (renunciation), 165, 191n100
Vaishnava Saṁhitās, 192
Vaishnavism, 44, 59, 67, 77–78, 125
and Bhagavad Gītā, 210
and Bhaktisiddhānta, 110
and Goswami, 2–3
and ISKCON, 3
and Judah, 45
as monotheistic, 23
and Prabhupāda, 102
Shinn on, 57
and Urquhart, 101n39
Vallabha, 125, 167
van der Veer, Peter, 39
Varāha Purāṇa, 193
varṇa, 171n47 (p.285)
varṇāśrama-dharma, 80, 107, 169–170
See also dharma Vasudeva, 137
Vāsudeva-Krishna, 124, 137, 140
vedānta and Prabhupāda’s name, 22
Vedānta and Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura, 105
as normative ideology, 163–164
Vedānta Sūtra, 88, 123, 163n16
Vedānta tradition and change, 31
and Clooney, 28
and theological originality, 31
and translation, 31
Vedāntic interpretation and Urquhart, 99–100
Vedāntins, 28
Vedas, 43n10, 88, 88n4
and animal sacrifice, 69–70
Baird on, 67
and bhakti, 2
and Herman, 75
and Hinduism, 77
and Purāṇas, 88
ritual texts of, 130
strictures of, 213
themes of, 30
unity of meaning in and privileged access to all, 43
and ur-Veda, 164
and ur-Vedic Vishnu, 124
Vedic 1, 25n14
Vedic 2, 25n14
Vedic 3, 25n14
Vedic civilization, 103
vegetarian diet, 61n46
Veṇu Gīta, 218
vidheya-saparyāya, 84n100, 158n1
vigraha (discernible form), 132
Vīrabhadra, 121n4
virakti, 191
vīrya-śakti (energy of heroism), 135n52
Vishnu, 28n22, 125
and Kāraṇodakaśāyī Vishnu, 133–134
and Krishna, 23
and Madhva, 23n8
as originating in Krishna, 140
relative Godheadness of, 143
Urquhart on, 101
Vishnu-Nārāyaṇa, 125
Viśiṣṭādvaita, 28n22
Viṣṇu Purāṇa, 135n50
Viśvanātha, 169, 179n68
Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura, 112n71, 113, 117, 198
Vivekananda, 101, 147, 151, 168–169
voidism, 26, 68, 101, 165
Vraja, 187
Vṛndāvana, 74, 136–137, 187–189, 188, 190, 191, 195
Vṛndāvana-Krishna, 137, 151, 165
Vyāsa, 88, 93–94n21
vyāvahārika, 78
Wach, Joachim, 37, 115
Sociology of Religion, 23n9
Waghorne, Joanne, 156
Waldman, Marilyn R., 30–31, 159
Wallace, Anthony, 46–47n21
Weber, Edmund, 79
Weber, Max, 23n9, 37
Wesley, John, 56–57, 180
Western culture, 26, 55
and Bhaktivinoda, 103
counter-culture context in, 3
Hopkins on, 58, 59
and ISKCON, 21
and Prabhupāda, 5, 74, 94
religious sensibility of, 94
seen as fountainhead of wisdom and value, 57
and Urquhart, 98 (p.286)
Western Indologists, 102
Western monotheistic religions, 43
Wheeler, Howard (Hayagriva Swami), 116, 188
Wilson, H. H., 101, 161, 163
Wilson, J., 96
women, 104n46
and Prabhupāda, 93n17
and Prabhupāda’s mission, 175–176
and Prabhupāda’s purports, 116
in role and status of devotees, 79–80
and strī-dharma, 80
as temple priests, 193
and Urquhart, 93n17
Wulff, David, 61n47
yajña (sacrifice), 164, 165, 168, 171
yoga, 43, 164, 165, 220
Yogamāyā, 229
yogyatā (compatibility), and sannidhi (proximity), 153
yukta-vairāgya (balanced renunciation), 111, 176–177
Zaehner, R. C., 48, 78, 139n66
Zaidman-Dvir, Nurit, 72n73, 77n88