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The Age of DualizationThe Changing Face of Inequality in Deindustrializing Societies$
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Patrick Emmenegger, Silja Hausermann, Bruno Palier, and Martin Seeleib-Kaiser

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199797899

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199797899.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 29 July 2021

From Dilemma to Dualization

From Dilemma to Dualization

Social and Migration Policies in the “Reluctant Countries of Immigration”

(p.124) 6 From Dilemma to Dualization
The Age of Dualization

Patrick Emmenegger

Romana Careja

Oxford University Press

Western European governments face a dilemma. On the one hand, their immigrant population is growing. On the other hand, the public opposes large-scale immigration and wants to restrict immigrants’ access to social benefits. We argue that in ‘reluctant countries of immigration’ such as France, Germany, and Great Britain, this tension is attenuated by reforms of social and migration policies. Firstly, migration policies are changed to encourage the arrival of ‘desired’ workers, while barriers to entry for ‘undesired’ immigrants are erected. Secondly, immigrant-specific social security schemes are reformed in order to reduce the incentive for immigrants to come in the first place. Finally, immigrants are disproportionately affected by the cutbacks in social security programs since the 1990s. These reforms contribute to the persistence of socio-economic differences between immigrants and citizens despite considerable efforts aimed at integrating the immigrants into their host societies.

Keywords:   immigration, guest workers, cheap labor, welfare chauvinism, illegal immigration, high-skilled immigrants, secondary labor market, dilemma, dualization

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