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The Biology of Homosexuality$
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Jacques Balthazart

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199838820

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199838820.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 22 April 2021

Sexuality and Sexual Orientation

Sexuality and Sexual Orientation

Learning or Biology?

2 Sexuality and Sexual Orientation
The Biology of Homosexuality

Jacques Balthazart

Oxford University Press

This chapter reviews the various theories that have been advanced to explain homosexuality from an environmental perspective and shows why these theories, although they are still widespread, are not satisfactory and are not supported by experimental evidence. The arguments presented here concern exclusively homosexual orientation as defined in Chapter 1: exclusive or preferential sexual attraction for persons of the same sex. It considers psychoanalytic theories, theories based on learning derived from behaviorism, and theories based on “social constructivism”. It argues that the evolutionary history of life on earth means that we can find evidence of the causes of human behavior through the study of similar behaviors in other animals, and the role of neurons in initiating and controlling our actions.

Keywords:   homosexuality, sexual orientation, human behavior, behaviorism, social constructivism, psychoanalysis, evolution, history of life

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