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The Biology of Homosexuality$
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Jacques Balthazart

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199838820

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199838820.001.0001

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The Effects of Sex Steroids in Humans

The Effects of Sex Steroids in Humans

Organizing Effects

6 The Effects of Sex Steroids in Humans
The Biology of Homosexuality

Jacques Balthazart

Oxford University Press

Chapters 3 and 4 reviewed many of the principles highlighted in various animal models on the effects of sex steroids on the expression of reproductive behavior, on sexual differentiation during development, and on the sexual orientation. This chapter examines the available data suggesting that these mechanisms are still active in the human species. It reviews available evidence that demonstrates in many cases that the effects of steroid hormones that have been identified in animals are also present in humans, although they are sometimes partially masked by other mechanisms. It considers first the biological mechanisms of sex determination that are identical in animals and in humans. It then considers the current state of knowledge on the organizing and activating effects of sex steroids on physical and behavioral characteristics.

Keywords:   sex steroids, sexual behavior, sexuality, biological mechanisms, sex determination

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