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Advances in Culture and PsychologyVolume Two$
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Michele J. Gelfand, Chi-yue Chiu, and Ying-yi Hong

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199840694

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199840694.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 13 April 2021

Social Change and Human Development

Social Change and Human Development

An Autobiographical Journey

(p.90) Chapter 3 Social Change and Human Development
Advances in Culture and Psychology

Patricia M. Greenfield

Oxford University Press

This chapter reviews research on social change and human development that has culminated in the author’s Theory of Social Change and Human Development. At the heart of the theory is the notion that sociodemographic factors drive cultural values, learning environments, and, ultimately, developmental trajectories. Changing sociodemographic conditions transform these values, environments, and pathways. The author’s research in Senegal, Mexico, the United States, and Italy demonstrates that the dominant direction of global social change—from subsistence to commerce, village to city, informal education at home to formal education at school, and low technology to high technology—results in more individualistic values, greater independence from family, more innovative thinking, and more abstract cognition. The theory has applicability to social change within a country and among migrants who change countries, as well as to both basic and applied research.

Keywords:   social change, human development, gemeinschaft, gesellschaft, migration, urbanization, technology, formal education, learning environment, socialization, cultural values

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