Chapter 7 summarizes the conclusions from this book about how parties affect women’s representation. The research in this book demonstrates that both party effects – party identity and institutional partisanship – fundamentally shape how women represent women. Party identity separates women candidates’ issue positions in the election and the solutions to women’s issues policy problems they offer in legislative agenda setting. Institutional partisanship via majority party control shapes the alternatives to women’s issues offered by women legislators into a legislative agenda. Votes on this agenda are largely partisan or near unanimous; it is quite rare to see women legislators cross party lines to support the same women’s issues bill with their roll call votes. In all, party identity separates women legislators’ preferences and proposals on women’s issues, and institutional partisanship provides the legislative structure through which partisan women pursue these proposals. Thus, for women legislators, representing women is an inherently partisan endeavour.
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