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Religious Liberty in Western and Islamic Law$
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Kristine Kalanges

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199859467

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199859467.001.0001

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Religious Liberty in Islamic International Law

Religious Liberty in Islamic International Law

(p.140) Chapter 6 Religious Liberty in Islamic International Law
Religious Liberty in Western and Islamic Law

Kristine Kalanges

Oxford University Press

The rise of political Islam in the 1970s and 1980s in reaction to secular Western imperial power had consequences at both the domestic and international levels. Islamists sought to institutionalize their religious authority and political power in state constitutions, which in turn had tangible and often grave effects on the practical and legal status of religious freedom in those countries. Concurrently, the growing power of Islamism, coupled with the rise of national and transnational Islamic identity, inspired efforts to develop Islamic alternatives to Western international law. The resulting agreements—such as the Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights and the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam—have raised pressing questions about the compatibility of Islam and human rights; the status of women, non-Muslims, and religious freedom in Islamic declarations; the nature of contemporary Islamic international law; and the implications of differences between Western and Islamic formulations for the universality of human rights. These questions are the subject of this chapter.

Keywords:   Islam, religious freedom, Islamism, Islamic identity, international law, human rights

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