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Medieval NubiaA Social and Economic History$
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Giovanni R. Ruffini

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199891634

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199891634.001.0001

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(p.232) Conclusion
Medieval Nubia

Giovanni R. Ruffini

Oxford University Press

The conclusion summarizes necessary future directions for research in medieval Nubia, including the publication of remaining documents, and a closer look at the process of Islamization in Nubia. The conclusion also includes a discussion of gender in medieval Nubia, noting the prominent role of women in Nubian land ownership and the parallel importance of women in Nubian royal succession. An historical synthesis summarizes the activities of the main Nubian officials we see in office from the eleventh to the fifteenth centuries. The conclusion ends with a summary of the book’s arguments and an attempt to demonstrate that what we can prove true for Qasr Ibrim was probably true in the Nubian heartland as well. The Nubian capital at Dongola has revealed art portraying a feast accompanying a financial exchange. Medieval graffiti written not far from Dongola have revealed travelers from western Europe. Various documents show networks of land ownership connecting Dongola to Qasr Ibrim and elsewhere. In short, Qasr Ibrim is not exceptional but serves as a proxy for both Lower and Upper Nubia, where we consistently see a civilization blending indigenous festive practices with late antique patterns of land ownership and legal practice.

Keywords:   Islamization, gender, women, Nubian elite, Dongola, Byzantium, Mediterranean travel

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