Chapter 3 shows the complexity of interconfessional and intraconfessional disagreements about predestination in the late 17th century. Although there was no fundamental disagreement on this between the Brandenburgers and the Hannoverians, the problem lay with the fact that for the Lutherans salvation rested on the faith God foreknew and not on God’s absolute decree. Leibniz, for his part, was more preoccupied with the philosophy of freedom and determinism than he was with the theological issue of “universal grace” as opposed to “foreknown faith.” He argued that a reprobate person such as Judas was created with God pre-inclining him by hypothetical necessity to act according to the highest good. But this world, actualized by God as the best possible, was not consonant with Judas receiving special grace; God left Judas free to use his will according to the dictates of his imperfect understanding so that he sinned freely and contingently.
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