Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
LeibnizProtestant Theologian$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Irena Backus

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780199891849

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199891849.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 18 September 2021



(p.57) 3 Predestination

Irena Backus

Oxford University Press

Chapter 3 shows the complexity of interconfessional and intraconfessional disagreements about predestination in the late 17th century. Although there was no fundamental disagreement on this between the Brandenburgers and the Hannoverians, the problem lay with the fact that for the Lutherans salvation rested on the faith God foreknew and not on God’s absolute decree. Leibniz, for his part, was more preoccupied with the philosophy of freedom and determinism than he was with the theological issue of “universal grace” as opposed to “foreknown faith.” He argued that a reprobate person such as Judas was created with God pre-inclining him by hypothetical necessity to act according to the highest good. But this world, actualized by God as the best possible, was not consonant with Judas receiving special grace; God left Judas free to use his will according to the dictates of his imperfect understanding so that he sinned freely and contingently.

Keywords:   Foreknown faith, freedom, determinism, absolute decree

Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .