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Modernism and the New SpainBritain, Cosmopolitan Europe, and Literary History$
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Gayle Rogers

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199914975

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199914975.001.0001

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. Joyce and the Spanish Ulysses

. Joyce and the Spanish Ulysses

(p.65) 2. Joyce and the Spanish Ulysses
Modernism and the New Spain

Gayle Rogers

Oxford University Press

Chapter Two incorporates insights from Anglophone and Spanish criticism on James Joyce’s Ulysses (1922) since the twenties as a means to analyze the affinities that Joyce posits between the marginal states of Ireland and Spain, both of which were in upheaval at the moment the novel was published. These narratives in Ulysses, in turn, model the very symbiotic regeneration of Ireland and Spain that Joyce’s first Spanish critics imagined. Ulysses also greatly influenced a contemporaneous generation of writers who, under dictatorship, were searching for non-statist forms through which they might express a new, more cosmopolitan Hispanicity. In the context of Spanish regeneracionismo, their cultural politics also highlight the critical narratives embedded in Joyce’s novel about Ireland and Spain’s shared histories and futures. These include the decline and suffering of both countries at the hands of the British empire, their being seen as Africanized and barbaric by Europeans, and their belonging to Joyce’s sketch of a post-imperial Europe. By integrating Joyce’s cosmopolitanism with Ortega’s, Marichalar, a leading critic now, positions the exilic Joyce as a liberal-humanist Catholic member of new “minor” European avant-garde. These alliances are captured novelistically when Joyce places Leopold and Molly Bloom—the latter was born in Gibraltar to a Spanish mother—alongside one another as prototypes of a renewed European subjectivity.

Keywords:   James Joyce, Antonio Marichalar, Gibraltar, Molly Bloom, Ireland, Spain, Leopold Bloom

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