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After the SpringEconomic Transitions in the Arab World$
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Magdi Amin, Ragui Assaad, Nazar al-Baharna, Kemal Dervis, Raj M. Desai, Navtej S. Dhillon, Ahmed Galal, Hafez Ghanem, Carol Graham, and Daniel Kaufmann

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199924929

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199924929.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 15 April 2021

The Origins of the Arab Spring

The Origins of the Arab Spring

(p.31) Chapter 2 The Origins of the Arab Spring
After the Spring

Magdi Amin

Ragui Assaad

Nazar al-Baharna

Kemal Derviş

Raj M. Desai

Navtej S. Dhillon

Ahmed Galal

Hafez Ghanem

Carol Graham

Daniel Kaufmann

Homi Kharas

John Page

Djavad Salehi-Isfahani

Katherine Sierra

Tarik M. Yousef

Oxford University Press

Arab states have traditionally secured the loyalty of their subjects through an authoritarian bargain by which government jobs and a generous welfare state were provided to Arab citizens in exchange for restrictions on political behavior. This social contract-under stress for the past two decades-began to erode prior to the Arab spring. For Arab youth, in particular, employment is scarce, and standards of living are declining or stagnant. In the end, decades of slow and piecemeal reforms could not prevent the eventual unraveling of the Arab social contract and the unmaking of the Arab polity. This chapter explores the proximate sources of the regime changes in the Arab world and explains how the legacies of Arab political development will shape the possibilities for economic reform.

Keywords:   arab spring, welfare state, social contract, authoritarian bargain, regime change, political development

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