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The Future of Religious FreedomGlobal Challenges$
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Allen D. Hertzke

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199930890

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199930890.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 16 October 2021

Assertive and Passive Secularism

Assertive and Passive Secularism

State Neutrality, Religious Demography, and the Muslim Minority in the United States

Chapter:
(p.234) (p.235) 10 Assertive and Passive Secularism
Source:
The Future of Religious Freedom
Author(s):

Ahmet T. Kuru

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199930890.003.0011

Assertive secularism, which aims to exclude religion from the public sphere, has been the dominant ideology in France and Turkey. In the United States, however, the dominant ideology has been passive secularism, which requires the state to play a passive role that allows public visibility of religion. Despite religious-friendly passive secularism, Muslims faced religious profiling and other restrictions in the aftermath of 9/11, owing to security concerns and rising Islamophobia in the United States. That is not a unique Muslim experience in America. Historically, Catholics and Jews also experienced discrimination, but they eventually integrated into American society due to passive secularism. Passive secularism in the United States provides a more effective way for the integration of unconventional religious groups, including Muslims, than assertive secularism in France, which is intolerant toward public religions.

Keywords:   secularism, Islam, Muslims, the United States, minorities, neutrality

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