Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Future of Religious FreedomGlobal Challenges$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Allen D. Hertzke

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199930890

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199930890.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use.date: 06 July 2022

Oligopoly Dynamics and the Triple Religious Markets in China

Oligopoly Dynamics and the Triple Religious Markets in China

(p.128) 5 Oligopoly Dynamics and the Triple Religious Markets in China
The Future of Religious Freedom

Fenggang Yang

Oxford University Press

This chapter introduces four types of state-religion relations in human history – religious monopoly, pluralism, oligopoly, and a total ban. It argues that religious oligopoly is the most common practice in the world today and applies that understanding to the situation in China. The chapter illuminates the operation of triple markets in China: a red market of legal (officially permitted and regulated) religions; a black market of illegal religious groups and activities; and a grey market of spiritual organizations and practices of ambiguous legal status. This triple market is dynamic, as some groups, such as the Falun Gong, moved from ambiguous to illegal status, while some illegal underground Christian churches have moved into the gray category. The chapter draws upon these findings to challenge and refine dominant theories about the operation of religious markets.

Keywords:   religious markets, religious monopoly, religious oligopoly, religious pluralism, triple religious markets in China, underground churches, black market religion, Falun Gong, Qigong, Catholic Patriotic Association

Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .