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Democracy’s Fourth Wave? – Digital Media and the Arab Spring - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Democracy’s Fourth Wave?: Digital Media and the Arab Spring

Philip N. Howard and Muzammil M. Hussain


In 2011, four of the world’s most recalcitrant dictators—Zine el Abadine Ben Ali of Tunisia, Hosni Mubarak of Egypt, Muammar el-Gaddafi of Libya, and Ali Abdullah Saleh of Yemen—fell after decades in power. Social protests cascaded across North Africa and the Middle East in an “Arab Spring.” Each popular uprising was unique in some ways, and digital media was relevant in different ways in each case. Communities used social media to understand their shared grievances and learn about each other’s strategies. Inspiring stories of risk and success cascaded digitally between cities, and across bord ... More

Keywords: digital media, internet censorship, internet, mobile phone, social media, information infrastructure, political communication, Arab Spring, Middle East, North Africa

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2013 Print ISBN-13: 9780199936953
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2013 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199936953.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Philip N. Howard, author
University of Washington

Muzammil M. Hussain, author
Department of Communication, University of Washington