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Worldviews of Aspiring PowersDomestic Foreign Policy Debates in China, India, Iran, Japan and Russia$
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Henry R. Nau and Deepa Ollapally

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199937479

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199937479.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 18 January 2021

Russia's Contested National Identity and Foreign Policy

Russia's Contested National Identity and Foreign Policy

(p.181) 6 Russia's Contested National Identity and Foreign Policy
Worldviews of Aspiring Powers

Andrew C. Kuchins

Igor Zevelev

Oxford University Press

This chapter examines the Russian foreign policy discourse. For the purposes of discussion, the leading schools of thought and policy practitioners in Russia in 1992–2011 are categorized into three groups: pro-Western Liberals; Great Power balancers; and Nationalists. It is shown that the main magnetic pole in Russian debates over identity and foreign policy orientation is the status of the Western democratic market development model as well as the role of the United States and the West more broadly in international relations. The three categories of pro-Western Liberals, Great Power balancers, and Nationalists can be approximately correlated to pro-Western, neutral toward the West, and anti-Western. The main axis of debate revolves around the first two categories of liberals and Great Power balancers. The most significant factor with the potential to push the needle in one direction or the other is the world economy and how it affects the oil price. The lower price environment favors liberals who call for deeper structural reform of the Russian economic and political system to increase efficiency, while the higher price environment discourages reform and fuels greater assertiveness.

Keywords:   Russian foreign policy, pro-Western liberals, great power balancers, nationalists, Russian identity, oil prices, international relations

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