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Ancestral Landscapes in Human EvolutionCulture, Childrearing and Social Wellbeing$
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Darcia Narvaez, Kristin Valentino, Agustin Fuentes, James J. McKenna, and Peter Gray

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780199964253

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199964253.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 29 July 2021

Relationships and Resource Uncertainty

Relationships and Resource Uncertainty

Cooperative Development of EFE Hunter-Gatherer Infants and Toddlers

Chapter:
(p.69) 4 Relationships and Resource Uncertainty
Source:
Ancestral Landscapes in Human Evolution
Author(s):

Gilda Morelli

Paula Ivey Henry

Steffen Foerster

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199964253.003.0006

The social landscape and development of Efe infants and toddlers are described. For the Efe, survival depends on sharing and cooperation with others beyond the immediate family that is built on a history of trustworthy experiences. Efe infancy is intensely social. Infants and toddlers are in near constant physical and/or social contact with people for much of their waking time. These young children are very successful at obtaining resources from other members of the forager band, as well as visitors. With increasing growth and mobility, toddlers play a more active role in determining with whom they spend time, and their networks grow and diversify, most likely, as a result.

Keywords:   childhood, cooperation, socialization, Efe

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