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Prosocial DevelopmentA Multidimensional Approach$
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Laura M. Padilla-Walker and Gustavo Carlo

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780199964772

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199964772.001.0001

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Evolution, Prosocial Behavior, and Altruism

Evolution, Prosocial Behavior, and Altruism

A Roadmap for Understanding Where the Proximate Meets the Ultimate

(p.43) 3 Evolution, Prosocial Behavior, and Altruism
Prosocial Development

Patricia H. Hawley

Oxford University Press

Explorations into the multi-dimensionality of prosocial behavior and its underlying motivations is nothing less than a pursuit of the nature of human nature. This chapter disentangles definitions stemming from both psychological (proximate) and evolutionary (ultimate) perspectives, and in so doing clarifies some important points of confusion that arise from inter-disciplinary integration. The problems have included: using interchangeably the terms “altruistic” and “prosocial”; conflating “intention” and “motivation”, and; referring to very different constructs by the same name (i.e., “altruism”). Key distinctions between the literatures center on the voluntariness of the behavior, the intentionality of benefits, and the underlying motivations. Lessons learned from primatology, early infancy, and domestic dogs is discussed. The chapter closes on future directions of the multidimensionality of prosocial behavior and its motivational underpinnings.

Keywords:   evolution, altruistic punishment, prosocial behavior, altruistic motivation, prosocial intentions, altruistic motivations

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