The chapter introduces the concept of fitness, and focuses on the distribution of traits or behaviors within each population. The traits may be biological and governed by genes, or may instead have a social or a virtual basis that can be described by “memes.” Evolution describes how the distribution changes over time in response to fitness differences, for example, according to the replicator equation in discrete time or continuous time. The chapter also presents the Hardy‐Weinberg model of diploid evolution. A technical appendix points out connections to relative entropy and explores the continuous time limit of discrete replicator dynamics.
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