Chapter 14 meditates on the classic theme of speciation. It first presents the idea of evolutionary branching in adaptive dynamics. The chapter then treats morph loss in the rock-paper-scissors game and two modes of mate choice: preference of males to maintain coadapted gene complexes versus preference for rare males to produce successful sons in the context of RPS cycles. It then presents cellular automata models that create boundaries between proto-species, based on Hamiltonian social fitness, preference for mates, and alternatively colored tags, the key trait used to mediate social interactions and mate preferences. It concludes with some standard bifurcation models and a repurposed Hotelling model as useful ingredients for further work.
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