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Evolutionary Games in Natural, Social, and Virtual Worlds$
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Daniel Friedman and Barry Sinervo

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780199981151

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199981151.001.0001

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Contingent Life-Cycle Strategies

Contingent Life-Cycle Strategies

(p.236) 9 Contingent Life-Cycle Strategies
Evolutionary Games in Natural, Social, and Virtual Worlds

Daniel Friedman

Barry Sinervo

Daniel Friedman

Barry Sinervo

Oxford University Press

Chapter 9 considers “plastic” strategies that respond to contingencies, as well as life-cycle strategies. Various usages of the term plasticity are classified and equilibrium analyses are developed. Role contingent plasticity is exemplified by Maynard Smith’s well-known bourgeois strategy in Hawk-Dove interactions. State-contingent plasticity depends on external environmental cues, exemplified by tadpoles that transform between omnivorous and carnivorous types depending on the availability of shrimp. Frequency-contingent plasticity uses local cues on strategy distribution to transform own strategy, exemplified by sneaker males that transform to territorial types when territorial types are rare. Payoff-contingent plasticity responds to cues on relative payoffs; examples include context-dependent mate choice for subordinate or dominant males depending on son payoffs in the next generation. This chapter also develops a life-cycle framework and applies it to data collected on elephant seal mating behavior and life history at Año Nuevo beaches from 1970 to 2012.

Keywords:   plasticity, role contingent, state contingent, frequency contingent, payoff contingent, life-cycle strategies

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