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Accountability for KillingMoral Responsibility for Collateral Damage in America's Post-9/11 Wars$
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Neta Crawford

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199981724

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199981724.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 October 2021

How They Die

How They Die

2 (p.73) How They Die
Accountability for Killing

Neta C. Crawford

Oxford University Press

US Doctrine and Trends in Civilian Death: This chapter describes how the U.S. military became concerned with the problem of civilian death in Afghanistan and Iraq and modified its military doctrine as an attempt to minimize collateral damage killing. After briefly describing the difficulty of counting the dead in these wars, the second part of the chapter estimates the aggregate civilian deaths caused by the U.S. and its allies provides some of the details of how Afghan, Pakistani, Iraqi, and Yemeni civilians have been injured or killed in these wars despite the United States military’s best efforts. The chapter distinguishes between direct death, caused by military violence and indirect death, caused by the destruction of infrastructure.

Keywords:   Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, Yemen, civilian injury, direct death, indirect death

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