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Defending Democratic NormsInternational Actors and the Politics of Electoral Misconduct$
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Daniela Donno

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199991280

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199991280.001.0001

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The Limits of International Pressure

The Limits of International Pressure

(p.143) 7 The Limits of International Pressure
Defending Democratic Norms


Oxford University Press

This chapter examines three country cases in which the international enforcement of democratic norms either failed to produce meaningful electoral change or had, at best, partial or superficial effects: Armenia, Kenya and Cambodia. Examining these cases generates insights about the scope conditions of the theory and sheds further light on the relationship between international actors and the opposition. The cases suggest, for instance, that in the absence of a minimally viable and cohesive opposition, international pressure is likely to produce only limited, cosmetic improvements in electoral quality. The ability of international actors to produce even marginal changes under such conditions depends, in turn, on the consistency and strength of the enforcement effort itself.

Keywords:   Armenia, Cambodia, Kenya, Council of Europe, United Nations, Electoral manipulation, Mediation, Conditionality, Electoral violence, Authoritarian regimes

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